Hi = 1.

The element hydrogen (Gr.

Inorganic Drugs From The Mineral Kingdom I Metallo 870

water, +

Inorganic Drugs From The Mineral Kingdom I Metallo 871

producing, generates water - i. e., upon combustion, becoming one of its components) is not official, although in combination, especially with oxygen, forms most important compounds. It is found chiefly in water, animal and vegetable substances, all acids, and in the free state in gases from decomposing organic matters, intestines, and interior of the earth; it is combustible (blue flame) with intense heat, has great affinity for oxygen, often combining to form hydrates with dangerous reports and results.

Aqua. Water, H2O. - (Syn., Hydrogen Monoxide; Fr. Eau; Ger. Aqua communis, Wasser.)

Potable water in its purest attainable state. By this the U. S. P. means any water - be it rain (aqua pluvialis), snow (aqua nivalis), spring (aqua fontana), river (aqua fluvialis), or lake (aqua lacalis) - suitable for drinking, which does not curdle soap, or contain copper, iron, lead, ammonium compounds, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, organic substances, solids. It is a colorless, neutral, limpid liquid, practically tasteless and odorless; heated near boiling and agitated - evolves no disagreeable odor. Impurities: Iron, lead, copper, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, solids, ammonium compounds, organic substances.

Preparations. - 1. Aqua Destillata. Distilled Water, H2O. (Syn., Aq. Dest.; Fr. Eau distillee, Hydrolat simple; Ger. Destilliertes Wasser.)

Manufacture: Distil water 1,000 vol., reject first 100 vol., collect the next 750 vol. The first portion is liable to contain volatile substances, the last solid and organic matter, hence both are rejected. It is colorless, neutral, limpid liquid, odorless, tasteless. Impurities: Heavy metals, calcium chloride, sulphate, ammonia, carbon dioxide, organic or other oxidizable substances. Should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles, having been rinsed with hot distilled water just prior to filling.

2. Aqua Destillata Sterilisata. Sterilized Distilled Water, H2O. (Syn., Aq. Dest. Steril; Ger. Sterilisirtes Destilliertes Wasser.)

Manufacture: Transfer necessary quantity of freshly distilled water to a cleansed, sterilized hard-glass flask, close mouth with pledget of sterilized purified cotton, boil 30 minutes, cool without removing plug, protect mouth and cotton pledget from infection through dust by wrapping the top tightly with paper; should be used within 48 hours after preparation.

The purer water is the softer; hard water curdles soap from presence of calcium (sulphate, carbonate) or magnesium salts, consequently it is poorly adapted for domestic use.

Properties. - Demulcent, diuretic, diaphoretic, solvent, diluent.

Vapor bath accelerates circulation, causes profuse sweating.

Hot bath stimulates, producing redness of face and skin.

Warm bath slows respiration, reduces body temperature, relaxes skin, causes sleep. Valuable in febrile exanthematous diseases.

Cold bath abstracts heat, sometimes stimulant, tonic, sedative. Popular and very useful in febrile conditions, especially typhoid.

Mineral Waters. - In addition to the three preceding official waters a number of natural waters are used medicinally, which contain one or more chemicals, being named according to some active ingredient or therapeutic value. Thus we have:

Alkaline waters, containing NaHCO3 (usually predominates), NaCl, Na2SO4, and often free CO2 - Vichy, Kissingen, Carlsbad, Ems, Saratoga.

Chalybeate waters, containing FeSO4, Fe2CO3 - Wiesbaden, Brighton, Spa, Bedford, Rockbridge Alum.

Hepatic or sulphur waters, containing H2S - Aix-la-Chapelle, White Sulphur, Blue Lick, Sharon, Richfield.

Bitter waters, containing MgSO4, MgCl2 - Hunyadi, Friedrichshall.

Carbonated waters, containing Ca, Mg, Fe - carbonates held in solution by CO2 - Seltzer, Apollinaris, Old Sweet, White Rock, etc.

Lithia waters, containing lithium salts - Buffalo, Londonderry, Magnetic.

The list of such springs is lengthy, and all are asserted to be specific for one or more ailments. To obtain the benefit claimed, it is always best to visit the spring itself, and there, free from cares, worries, etc., drink the waters under the directions of a resident physician.

Liquor Hydrogenii Dioxidi. Solution of Hydrogen Dioxide, H2O2. - (Syn., Liq. Hydrog. Diox., Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi, U. S. P. 1900, Solution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Oxygenized Water, Oxygen Hydrate; Br. Liquor Hydrogenii Peroxidi; Fr. Solute de Peroxide d'Hydrogen; Ger. Wasserstoffsuperoxydlosung.)

Manufacture: Dissolve or hydrate to a magma, by shaking vigorously, barium dioxide 300 Gm. in cold distilled water 500 Ml. (Cc), keep at 10° C. (50° F.), shake now and then vigorously, until fully hydrated; mix phosphoric acid 96 Ml. (Cc.) with distilled water 320

Ml. (Cc.), reserve 50 Ml. (Cc), and to the remainder add the hydrated magma, shaking, cooling, and acidifying with the reserve occasionally, wash precipitate (barium phosphate) with distilled water q. s. 1,000 Ml. (Cc.); after filtration (aided by a little starch) add 30 drops of diluted sulphuric acid - until it ceases to produce cloudiness; mix cloudy liquid with starch 10 Gra., agitate, filter, assay, adjust to official strength - BaO2 + 2H3PO4 = Ba(H2PO4)2 + H2O2. It is a colorless aqueous liquid, odorless, or odor of ozone, slightly acid taste and reaction, producing a peculiar sensation and froth in the mouth; deteriorates on keeping or prolonged agitation; rapidly decomposed by many oxidizing and reducing substances; substituting a stopper coated with paraffin or a pledget of purified cotton, retards deterioration; contains 3 p. c. by weight of dioxide, H2O2, corresponding 10 volumes of available oxygen. Tests: 1. Expose to air at ordinary temperature, or heat on water-bath at 60° C. (140° F.) - loses chiefly water; rapidly heated it frequently decomposes suddenly. 2. Shake 1 Ml. (Cc.) with 10 Ml. (Cc.) of distilled water containing 1 drop of diluted sulphuric acid, add ether 2 Ml. (Cc), + a drop of potassium dichromate T. S. - aqueous layer blue color, which passes into the ethereal layer upon agitation. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, barium, free acid, oxalic acid, hydrofluoric acid, non-volatile matter. Upon removing stopper from the bottle only slight pressure should be observed. Should be kept cool and dark. Dose, 3 j_3 (4-12 Ml. (Cc.)).

Properties. - Oxidizant, stimulant (nervous system), increases urine, antiseptic, decomposes pus, kills microbes, prevents fermentation.

Uses. - Diabetes, atonic dyspepsia, dyspnoea, epilepsy, low fevers, whooping-cough, asthma, phthisis, anaemia, chlorosis, pneumonia; locally, in mucous membrane inflammations, wounds, ulcers, ozaena, ophthalmia, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, chancres, otorrhoea, rhinitis, diphtheria, bronchitis, fetid breath, cystitis, spray, gargle. Pyrozone is claimed to be 50 p. c. When hydrogen dioxide is dissolved in glycerin instead of water, we have glycozone.