Piii = 31.

(Syn., Phosphor.; Fr. Phosphore; Ger. Phosphor.)

The element phosphorus (Gr.

Phosphorus Phosphorus 878

light, +

Phosphorus Phosphorus 879

to bring - i. e., emits light in the dark) is official, and occurs in nature combined with various metals (Ca, Fe, Al, etc.), as phosphates, also in plants and animals, constituting about 60 p. c. of all bones in the form of trical-cium phosphate.

Manufacture: This is obtained by treating ground bones with H2SO4, when calcium sulphate is precipitated and calcium acid phosphate remains in solution. The latter is evaporated and distilled with sand and charcoal, thereby removing the oxygen and allowing the vaporized phosphorus to distil over, when it is condensed under water.

(1)

Ca32PO4

+

2H2SO4

=

CaH42PO4

+

2CaSO4.

Tricalcium phosphate.

Calcium acid phosphate.

(2) CaH42PO4 + heat = Ca2PO3 + 2H2O.

Calcium metaphosphate.

(3) 2(Ca2PO3) + 2SiO2 + 10C = 2CaSiO3 + 10CO + 4P.

It is a translucent, nearly colorless solid, waxy lustre, consistence of beeswax (ordinary temperatures), surface, on long keeping, white, red, occasionally black, distinctive and disagreeable odor and taste (use for this only very dilute solution), on exposure emits white fumes, which are luminous in the dark with garlicky odor, on longer exposure often takes fire spontaneously, sp. gr. 1.830, melts at 44° C. (111 ° F.), soluble in dehydrated alcohol (400), chloroform (17), absolute ether (102), benzene (31.5), carbon disulphide (.9), sparingly in fixed oils, almost insoluble in water, to which it imparts its odor and taste. Impurities: Arsenic, sulphur (both due to sulphuric acid used). Should be kept carefully under water, cool, dark, in strong, well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1/100-1/30 (.0006-.002 Gm.).

Preparations. - 1. Piluloe Phosphori. Pills of Phosphorus. (Syn., Pil. Phosphor.; Fr. Pilules (phosphorees) au Phosphore; Ger. Phos-phorpillen.)

Manufacture: Dissolve in test-tube, gently heating, phosphorus .06 Gm. in chloroform 5 Ml. (Cc), replacing from time to time that which evaporates, add this to althaea 6 Gm. and acacia 3 Gm., previously mixed, then add mixture of glycerin,2 vols. + water 1 vol. q. s. (4 Ml.

(Cc.)) for 100 pills; dissolve balsam of tolu 10 Gm. in ether 15 Ml. (Cc), and in sufficient quantity of this shake pills until coated, put on a plate, roll occasionally until dry; each pill contains 1/100 gr. (.0006 Gm.). Should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. Dose, 1-5 pills.

Unoff. Preps.: Elixir, 1/40 p. c, + chloroform .5, alcohol 34, glycerin 30, comp. spirit of orange 1, oil of anise .2, purified talc 3, dist. water q. s. 100, dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)). Elixir Phosphori el Nucis Vomicoe - tinct. nux vomica 3.5 p. c, elixir of phosphorus q. s. 100. Liquor, .07 p. c, spirit of peppermint .5, glycerin 64.50, dehydrated alcohol q. s. 100, dose, ex-15 (.6-1 Ml. (Cc.)). Oleum Phosphoratum, 1 p. c, + expressed oil of almond 90, ether 10, dose, ej-5 (.06-3 Ml. (Cc.)). Spirit, 1/8 p. c. (alcohol), dose, eviij-40 (.5-2.6 Ml. (Cc.)).

Properties. - Stimulant, tonic, nervine, diaphoretic, irritant, poisonous, nauseant, thickens and renders bones more dense, diminishes tissue-waste. A portion is oxidized into phosphoric acid, and as such enters the blood, some is dissolved by fats and oils that may happen in the stomach, thus being absorbed as phosphorus.

Uses. - Sexual exhaustion, cerebral softening, mania, melancholia, nerve-debility from overwork, worry, typhoid conditions, scarlet fever, measles, chronic eczema, psoriasis, neuralgia, angina pectoris, aphrodisiac, locomotor ataxia.

• Poisoning: Have intense intestinal irritation, vomiting, purging, skin cold, pulse feeble, rapid, syncope, death from exhaustion. Empty stomach, give hydrated magnesia, lime water, charcoal, copper sulphate, potassium permanganate, opium, and old (acid) oil of turpentine, this latter being its best antidote. No oils or fat should be used, as they dissolve the phosphorus, thus promoting its absorption. It is eliminated mostly by the urine as orthophosphoric acid, increasing excretion of urinary phosphates, hence evacuate bladder frequently.

Synergists: Restoratives, cod liver oil, arsenic, sulphur.

Acidum Phosphoricum. Phosphoric Acid, H3PO4. - (Syn., Acid. Phos.; Br. Acidum Phosphoricum Concentratum (66.3 p. c); Fr. Acide phosphorique; Ger. Phosphorsaure.) A liquid containing 85-88 p. c. of H3PO4.

Manufacture: It is made by oxidizing phosphorus with diluted nitric acid; the two are heated together in a retort until nitrous fumes cease to be given off, and then concentrated or diluted to desired strength - 5HNO3 + P3 + 2H2O = 3H3PO4 + 5NO; 1 part phosphorus requires 3 parts strong nitric acid, which must be diluted in the process and added gradually, that coming over even being returned to the retort; the final evaporation is in a porcelain dish at 190° C. (374° F.), to drive out nitric acid; should a portion upon dilution remove within a minute the color of potassium permanganate, the product must be heated with additional nitric acid, to reduce phosphorous acid. It is a colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid, strongly acid taste and reaction, even when highly diluted; sp. gr. 1.72; heated loses water; at 200° C. (392° F.) begins to change to pyrophosphoric acid, and at higher temperature is converted into metaphosplioric acid, which volatilizes in dense fumes, or forms on cooling a transparent mass of glacial metaphosplioric acid. Tests and Impurities: Same as for the diluted acid. Should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, eij-5 (.13-.3.M1. (Cc.)).

Preparations. - 1. Acidum Phosphoricum Dilutum. Diluted Phosphoric Acid. (Syn., Acid. Phos. Dil.; Fr. Acide phosphorique medicinal; Ger. Verdunnte Phosphorsaure.)

Manufacture: Mix phosphoric acid 10 Gm., distilled water 76.5 Gm.; an aqueous solution containing 9.5-10.5 p. c. of H3PO4. It is a clear, colorless, odorless liquid; strongly acid taste and reaction; sp. gr. 1.057. Tests: 1. Supersaturate 3 Ml. (Cc.) with ammonia water, + magnesium sulphate T. S. (or magnesia mixture T. S.) - white, crystalline precipitate, which collected, washed and dissolved in diluted acetic acid, + silver nitrate T. S. - yellow precipitate (dist. from meta-phosphoric, pyrophosphoric acids). 2. Warm gently 5 Ml. (Cc), + few drops of silver nitrate T. S. - not turbid (abs. of phosphorous, hypo-phosphorous acids). Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, phosphates, metaphosphoric, pyrophosphoric, hydrochloric, phosphorous, hypo-phosphorous, nitric, sulphuric acids. Should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. Dose, ev-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)), well diluted.

Unoff. Preps.: Liquor Phosphatum Acidus, 12 p. c, + precipitated calcium carbonate 5, magnesium carbonate .5, dist. water q. s. 100. Liquor Phosphatum Compositus, 14 p. c, + ferric and ammonium phosphates each 3.5, citric acid 16.4, + . Syrupus Phosphatum Compositus (Chemical Food), 50 p. c, +. Syrupus Phosphatum cum Quinina et Strychnina, dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)).

Phosphoric acid when heated above 300° C. (572° F.) parts with its water, becoming glacial phosphoric acid (Acidum Metaphosphori-cum) - H3PO4 + heat = HPO3 + H2O, which occurs in sticks or glassy lumps, hygroscopic; contains sodium metaphosphate and pyrophosphoric acid, readily soluble in water, gradually changing into phosphoric acid, coagulates egg-albumen.

Properties. - Tonic, alterative, refrigerant.

Uses. - Dyspepsia, hysteria, diabetes, leucorrhoea, low fevers, scrofula, caries of bone, night-sweats, catarrhal affections, jaundice, melancholia, injection for sinuses, scrofulous joints, wash for ulcers.

Acidum Hypophosphorosum. Hypophosphorous Acid, HPH2O2. - (Syn., Acid. Hypophos.; Fr. Acide Hypophosphoreux; Ger. Unter-phosphorigesaure.) An aqueous solution containing 20-32 p. c. of HPH2O2.

Manufacture: Dissolve calcium hypophosphite 138 Gm. in boiling water 900 Ml. (Cc), add oxalic acid 103 Gm. dissolved in boiling water 400 Ml. (Cc); boil mixture, evaporate filtrate to 358 Gm. - Ca(PH2O2)2 + H2C2O4 = 2HH2PO2 + CaC2O4; a weaker acid may be obtained by dissolving potassium hypophosphite (208) in water (588), tartaric acid (300) in diluted alcohol (600), mix, cool, filter - KH2PO2 + H2C4H4O6 = HH2PO2 + KHC4H4O6. It is a colorless, slightly yellow, odorless liquid; intensely acid taste and reaction, even if highly diluted; sp. gr. 1.130; when heated water evaporates, and at 135° C. (275° F.) decomposes, forming hydrogen phosphide (which ignites) and phosphorous acid, the latter decomposing at 165° C. (329° F.) into hydrogen phosphide and phosphoric acid; at higher temperature the pasty residue reddens, ignites, burning out unoxidized phosphorus. Tests and Impurities: Same as for the diluted acid. Dose, eiij-20 (.2-1.3 Ml. (Cc.)).

Preparations. - 1. Acidum Hypophosphorosum Dilutum. Diluted Hypophosphorous Acid, HPH2O2. (Syn., Acid. Hypophos. Dil.; Fr. Acide Hypophosphoreuxdilue; Ger.Verdiinnte Unterphosphorigesaure.)

Manufacture: Mix hypophosphorous acid 100 Gm. with distilled water 210 Gm. It is a colorless, odorless liquid, strongly acid taste and reaction; sp. gr. 1.042; aqueous solution containing 9.5-10.5 p. c. of HPH2O2. Tests: 1. With silver nitrate T. S. - black precipitate (silver). 2. With mercuric chloride T. S. - white precipitate (mercurous chloride). Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, barium, oxalic acid. Should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. Dose, ex-60 (.6-4 Ml. (Cc.)). Preps.: 1. Syrupus Ferri lodidi, 2 p. c. 2. Syrupus Hypophos-phitum, 1/5 p. c.

Properties and Uses. - Tonic, mostly in combination with strychnine, quinine, iron; nervous debility. In pharmacy as a reducing agent in analysis, and as a preservative to prevent decomposition of iodides in solution when exposed to light and air. A 50 p. c. acid is also made by evaporating carefully the 30 p. c. acid to three-fifths of its weight, or the 10 p. c. acid to one-fifth of its weight, sp. gr. 1.406.

Halogens or Haloids. - Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Fluorine. This group of four elements is one of very great importance in medicine and pharmacy. The word halogen is from Gr. Phosphorus Phosphorus 880 the sea, in reference to their original source; thus chlorine is from sea-salt, bromine from sea-water, and iodine from seaweed; besides this they all have atomic weights of a common ratio - chlorine, 35.4; bromine, 79.8; iodine, 126.6; fluorine, 19, which compared with the last is as 1, 7, 4, 2, or 35.4 + 126.9 4- 2 gives 81, which is approximately the atomic weight of bromine. In addition, they possess strong chemical affinities and enter into the composition of a large number of useful compounds.