Pilocarpinae Nitras, Pilocarpine Nitrate, C11H16N2O2.HNO3, official. - (Syn., Pilocarpin. Nit.; Fr. Azotate de Pilocarpine; Ger. Pilocarpinum nitricum, Pilokarpinnitrat.) Obtained by neutralizing diluted nitric acid (121) with pilocarpine (40), evaporating to dryness, redis-solving in alcohol, crystallizing; it is in shining crystals, odorless, permanent, soluble in water (4), alcohol (75), hot alcohol (21), insoluble in chloroform, ether, melts at 172° C. (342° F.). Tests: 1. Aqueous solution mixed with equal volume of ferrous sulphate T. S. and carefully poured over sulphuric acid without shaking - brown ring at juncture of two layers. Impurities: Chloride, etc. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr, 1/8-1/2 (.008-.03 Gm.), administered best hypodermically (2 p. c. aqueous solution).

Isopilocarpine. - Obtained by action of heat or alkali on pilocarpine; it is a colorless, viscid oil, oxidizing into pilocarpic acid, C11H16-N2O5, boiling at 261° C. (502° F.), distilling without decomposition, isomeric with pilocarpine; pilocarpidine, C10H14N2O2, found in P. Jaborandi but not in P. microphylhis, is a liquid body, differing from pilocarpine by auric chloride not precipitating aqueous solutions, in being weaker, deliquescent, oxidizing in air to syrupy jaboridine (possibly identical with jaborandine, C10H12N2O3; jaborine, C22H32N4O4, is of doubtful occurrence, although formerly believed to be in the leaves and to be formed by evaporating acid solutions of pilocarpine; as such it was yellow, amorphous, less soluble in water, but more so in ether than pilocarpine, isomeric with it (same molecular formula), but antagonizing its action, resembling atropine; the commercial jaborine has been found to be a brown oil composed of isopilocarpine, pilocarpidine, pilocarpine, and coloring matter.

Volatile Oil. - Obtained by distillation at 176° C. (350° F.), and is chiefly a terpene (pilocarpene) C10H16, with a little solid paraffin-like substance, sp. gr. 0.875.

Preparations. - 1. Fluidextractum Pilocarpi. Fluidextract of Pilocarpus. (Syn., Fldext. Pilocarp., Fluid Extract of Pilocarpus, Fluidextract of Jaborandi; Fr. Extrait fluide de Jaborandi; Ger. Jaborandi-fluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sabal, page 95; menstruum: 67 p. c. alcohol; reserve first 80 Ml. (Cc.), In which dissolve soft extract, assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .55 - .(65 - .6 Gm. of the alkaloids. Dose, exv-30 (1-2 Ml.

(Cc.))Unoff. Preps.: Extract, dose, gr. 3-10 (.2-6 Gm.). Infusion, dose,

℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)). Tinctura Pilocarpi (Jaborandi), 20 p. c, dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)). Pilocarpine nitrate (Br.), phosphate, acetate, hydrobromide, dose, each gr. 1/8-1/2 (.008-03 Gm.), hypoder-mically.

Properties. - Diaphoretic, sialagogue, myotic, cardiac depressant, emetic, diuretic (repeated small doses), galactagogue, abortive. Full doses cause flushed face, quickened circulation and respiration, profuse sweating and salivation (lasting 2-4 hours, losing in perspiration 9-15 ounces (.27-.45 L.), in saliva 10-27 ounces (.3-.8 L.), these always being in the inverse ratio); increases bronchial, nasal, mammary, gastric, and intestinal secretions, lowers temperature 1-4 degrees, contracts pupils, produces chilliness and weakness. The heart soon becomes slowed and arterial pressure lowered, by stimulating the terminations of the vagus, or by depressing the motor centres in the heart-muscle. Both the fluid and solids (especially urea) of the perspiration are increased by direct influence on the nerve-endings governing its secretion, while the cells of the salivary glands are stimulated directly.

Uses. - Dropsies, pleurisy, uraemia, pulmonic oedema, catarrhal jaundice, mumps, rheumatism, coryza, cold, influenza, Bright's disease, meningitis, diabetes, agalactia, parotitis, asthma, hiccough, erysipelas, diphtheria; best antidote to atropine, hyoscyamine, daturine, agaricin, etc.; powerful stimulant to hair growth, locally and internally. In ophthalmia use pilocarpine, in amblyopia (from alcohol or tobacco), detached retina, chronic iritis, keratitis, glaucoma, atrophic choroiditis, instead of physostigmine as a myositic. To avoid nausea, may give in form of enema.

Poisoning: Have profuse sweating, dizziness, salivation, vomiting, purging, contracted pupils, pain in eyes. Empty the stomach and wash it out with tannin; give atropine hypodermically and morphine to control nausea and vomiting; cardiac stimulants if necessary.

Incompatibles: Atropine, morphine, tannin, caustic alkalies, ferric and metallic salts.

Synergists: Aconite, veratrum viride, gelsemium, sarsaparilla, spirit of nitrous ether, and drugs which paralyze the vasomotor system.

Allied Plants:

1. Pilocarpus Selloa'nus (possibly the same as P. pinnatifo'lius, leaflets formerly official under both names); 2. P. grandiflo'rus: 3. P. pauciflo'rus; 4. P. heterophyl'lus; 5. P. spica'tus; 6. P. trachylo'phus. All produce leaves of similar medicinal value.