Oleum Pini Pumilionis. Oil of Dwarf Pine Needles, official.
Pinus montana, Miller.
A volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves.
Habitat. C. Europe: Tyrolese Alps, Carpathian Mountains, 1300-2500 M. (4200-8200°) elevation.
Syn. Dwarf Pine, Mountain Pine; Ol. Pin. Pumil., Dwarf Pine Oil, Pine Needle Oil; Ger. Latschenkieferol, Krummholzol.
Mon-ta'na. L. montanus, mountainous - i. e., preferred place of growth.
Pu-mil'io. L. pumilio, onis, fr. pumilus, dwarfish, diminutive - i. e., in reference to its small size.
Plant. - Small tree, branches decumbent or knee-like, more or less erect; bark persistent, dark colored; leaves 2 in a sheath, 2-5 Cm. (4/5-2') long, straight, scythe-shaped, obtuse apex, dull green, slightly glaucous; fruit (cones) ovoid, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') long, pyramidal protuberance on each scale on exposed side (outer).
Constituents. - Volatile oil, resin, tannin, bitter extractive.
Oleum Pini Pumilionis. Oil of Dwarf Pine Needles. This volatile oil, distilled from the fresh leaves (needles), is a colorless, faintly yellowish liquid, pleasant, aromatic odor, bitter, pungent taste, sp. gr. 0.860, no portion distils below 170° C. (338° F.), laevorotatory; contains l-pinene, l-phellandrene, sylvestrene, bornyl acetate (to which odor is due), cadinene. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, j-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)), on sugar, capsules, pastilles.
Fig. 17. - Abies Abies (excelsa).
Properties and Uses. - Antirheumatic, expectorant, stimulant, antiseptic; chronic rheumatism (internally), chronic bronchitis, laryngitis (inhaled); may rub on rheumatic joints, and cover with cotton; inhalant or vapor (oil 10 Ml. (Cc.), + magnesium carbonate 5 Gm. + distilled water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.); of this add 3j (4 Ml. (Cc.)) to hot water ℥xx (600 Ml. (Cc.)) and inhale through it; allays irritation and diminishes bronchial secretion, catarrhal inflammation. A juice (Hungarian balsam) exudes spontaneously from the tips of young branches, to which flasks are attached for easy collection, and this possesses properties of turpentine as well as of the oil.
Abies Abies (Excel'Sa), Pix Burgundica, Burgundy Pitch. The prepared resinous exudation, official 1820-1900; S. Europe (Burgundy province, France). Lofty tree, 24-45 M. (80-150°) high; leaves short, 4-cornered, green; flowers, staminate and pistillate; fruit purple, cylindrical; scales oval. The oleoresin (Jura turpentine) is obtained from incisions made through the bark, after which it is melted in water and strained, thus yielding the once official product. It is yellowish-brown, hard, yet gradually conforming to the container, shining, conchoidal fracture, opaque or translucent, brittle, softened by heat, aromatic, terebinthinate, sweetish, not bitter; contains volatile oil 5 p. c, water 5-10 p. c. (absorbed during treatment), remainder is resin (chiefly abietic acid). Stimulant, counter-irritant, in plasters as a base and for support; rheumatism, joint affections, chest troubles, pleurisy, bronchitis, catarrh, asthma, hepatitis, phthisis, pneumonia.
2. A. balsam'ea, Terebinthina Canadensis, Canada Turpentine. - The liquid oleoresin (balsam of fir), official 1820-1910; Canada, United States, chiefly Laurentine Mountains, Quebec. Beautiful, ornamental tree (American Silver Fir), 9-15 M. (30-50°) high, pyramidal shape; bark smooth, reddish-gray when young, filled with blisters (reservoirs) containing the oleoresin; leaves 2 Cm. (4/5') long, linear, silvery beneath; flowers, staminate - catkins, pistillate - cones, 5-10 Cm. 2-4' long, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad; pollen bright yellow; seeds with wing. Oleoresin (Canada turpentine), viscid, yellowish, transparent, odor agreeable; taste terebinthinate, bitter, acrid, soluble in ether, chloroform, benzene; collected by puncturing vesicles with the sharp-pointed nozzle of the "balsam-collector's" can; contains volatile oil 24 p. c, acid resin 63 p. c, indifferent resin 12 p. c, acids (4) - canadinic, canadolic, a- and b-canadinolic. Properties and uses, similar to oil of turpentine, except this dries into an adhesive, transparent varnish, thus becoming valuable in microscopic technique. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.). A. Fra'seri. - Resembles the preceding, but cones only 5 Cm. (2') long, sharp-pointed scales projecting and recurved; New England, North Carolina, in mountains; used for collecting balsam of fir.
3. A. Pi'cea (pectina'ta), Strassburg Turpentine (Terebinthina Argentoratensis). - Vosges. Obtained like Canada balsam, chiefly differing in odor (lemon); taste bitter, not acrid; completely soluble in absolute alcohol. A. Menzie'sii, Oregon Balsam of Fir, resembles Canada balsam when fresh, but becomes gradually granular and opaque.