1. Podophyllum Emo'Di

Podophyllum Emo'Di. India, Hazara, Kashmir; Himalaya Mountains; rhizome, collected after flowering, cylindrical, stem-scars crowded on upper surface, many roots beneath; yields resin 10-14 p. c, which contains podophyllotoxin 38-63 p. c., thereby making it similar to but stronger than our official drug. Dose of resin, gr. 1/8-1 (.008-06 Gm.).

2. Ber'Beris Aquifo'Lium, Holly-Leaved Barberry

Ber'Beris Aquifo'Lium, Holly-Leaved Barberry. The rhizome and roots, official 1900-1910; United States - Oregon, California, mountains. Low-trailing, glabrous shrub; leaves pinnate; leaflets 3-7, ovate, acute, dentate with spine-bearing teeth; flowers, yellow racemes; fruit blue globose berry, like whortleberry, Rhizome knotty, irregular pieces, variable length, 3-20 Mm. (1/8-4/5') thick, small pith; bark (containing activity) 1/2-2 Mm. (1/50-1/12') thick, brownish; wood yellowish, radiate, hard, tough, inert; odor distinct; taste strongly bitter; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains (bark) berberine 2.35 p. c, oxyacanthine 2.82 p. c., resin, tannin, phytosterin. Alterative, diuretic, antiperiodic, tonic, laxative; scrofulous and syphilitic cachexia, chronic eczema, psoriasis, uterine diseases, dyspepsia with constipation. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); fluidextract (dil. alc.), x-30 (.6-2 Ml. (Cc.)).

3. B. vulga'ris (canadensis). - The fruit, official 1830-1840; the bark of the root, 1860-1880. Spreading shrub, 1-2 M. .(3-6°) high, thorny branches, bark gray, wood yellow, leaves toothed, spiny; flowers, yellow racemes; fruit, oval, scarlet berry; root-bark yellowish-gray, separable into laminae, bitter, astringent; contains berberine, resin, tannin, fat. Used in febrile diseases, diarrhoea; bark in dysentery, dropsy, dyspepsia, to lessen size of spleen; similar to calumba. Dose (bark), gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.); infusion, decoction; fruit juice sometimes made into syrup, preserves, etc.

4. Caulophyl'Lum Thalictroi'Des, Blue Cohosh

Caulophyl'Lum Thalictroi'Des, Blue Cohosh. The rhizome and roots, collected in spring or early summer, official 1880-1900; N.

America (Canada, United States). Perennial herb, stem .6 M. (2°) high, smooth, with large triternately compound leaf at summit; leaflets 3-5-lobed; flowers greenish-yellow. Rhizome horizontal, 10 Cm. (4') long, 8 Mm. (1/3') thick, knotty from concave stem-scars on upper surface, grayish-brown, tough, woody; roots many, matted, 12.5 Cm. (5') long, 1 Mm. (1/25') thick; contains caulophylline, caulophyllin (resins) 12 p.c., leontin (saponin-like gluco-side - active principle). Antispasmodic, diuretic, emmenagogue, demulcent, sternutatory, sedative, oxytocic; hysteria, amenorrhoea, spasmodic dysmenorrhoea, uterine subinvolution (causing muscular contraction), arrests or produces abortion; the aborigines believed the infusion their best parturient, drinking it for several weeks prior to labor. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); fluidextract, x-30 (.6-2 Ml. (Cc.)); extract, gr. 2-5 (.13-3 Gm.); tincture, 25 p. c, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)); decoction, infusion, both 5 p. c, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)).