3. Aqueous solution (1 in 5) and sodium bitartrate T. S. each 5 Ml. (Cc.) - white crystalline precipitate; heat .1 Gm. with sulphuric acid and alcohol each 1 Ml. (Cc.) - ethyl acetate, recognized by odor. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, etc. Should be kept in air-tight containers. Dose, gr. 10-60 (.6-4 Gm.); laxative, 3ij-4 (8-15 Gm.).
Preparations. - (Unoff.): Elixir Potassii Acetatis, 8.5 p. c, + aromatic elixir q. s. 100, dose, 3ij-4 (8-15 Ml. (Cc.)). Elixir Potassii Acetatis et Juniperi, 8.5 p. c, + fldext. juniper 12.5, +.
Properties. - Diuretic, diaphoretic, aperient, non-irritating, antiscorbutic; renders urine alkaline, preventing and dissolving uric acid precipitates (gravel).
Uses. - Dropsies (not so good as the bitartrate), acute rheumatism, gout, liver derangements, jaundice, congestion of spleen, uterus, and hemorrhoidal vessels, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis, lepra), febrile affections, to render urine alkaline. All organic acid salts are believed to be converted into carbonates in the stomach.
Potassii Citras. Potassium Citrate, K3C6H5O7 + H2O. - (Syn., Pot. Cit., Kalium Citricum, Citras Potassicus (Kalicus); Fr. Citrate de Potassium; Ger. Kaliumcitrat, Citronsaures Kali.)
Manufacture: Saturate to neutrality a solution of citric acid with potassium carbonate (or bicarbonate), filter, evaporate, granulate (1) 3K2CO3 + 2H3C6H5O7,H2O = 2K3C6H5O7,H2O + 3H2O + 3CO2.
(2) 3KHCO3 + H3C6H5O7,H2O = K3C6H5O7 + 4H2O + 3CO2. It occurs in transparent, prismatic crystals or white granular powder, odorless, cooling, saline taste, deliquescent, soluble in glycerin, water (.6), almost insoluble in alcohol; aqueous solution (1 in 20) alkaline to litmus, not reddened by 1 drop of phenolphthalein T. S.; contains, when dried, 99 p. c. of crystallized salt. Tests: 1. Heat to 200° C. (392° F.) - loses water of crystallization; at higher heat - decomposes, turns brown, carbonizes, emits inflammable gases of pungent', acrid odor; at red heat - residue of alkaline reaction, strongly effervescing with acids. 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 10) with sodium bitartrate T. S. - white, crystalline precipitate; aqueous solution (1 in 20) and calcium chloride T. S. each 10 Ml. (Cc.) - liquid remains clear until boiled, then white, granular precipitate. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, tartrate. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 10-60 (.6-4 Gm.); mild laxative, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.).
Preparation. - 1. Potassii Citras Effervescens. Effervescent Potassium Citrate. (Syn., Pot. Cit. Eff.; Fr. Citrate de Potasse Effervescent; Ger. Brausendes Kaliumcitrat.)
Manufacture: Dry potassium citrate 20 Gm. until it ceases to lose weight, powder and mix with powdered citric acid 16.2, tartaric acid 25.2, then with sodium bicarbonate 47.7, heat in oven 93-104° C. (199-219° F.); when mixture moist from careful manipulation with wooden spatula, rub through No. 6 tinned-iron sieve, dry granules at 54° C. (130° F.). Should be kept in well-sealed containers to avoid contact with moist air. Dose, gr. 10-60 (.6-4 Gm.).
Liquor Potassii Citratis. Solution of Potassium Citrate. - (Syn., Liq. Pot. Cit., Mistura Potassii Citratis, Neutral Mixture, Liquor Kali Citrici; Fr. Citrate de Potassium liquide; Ger. Kaliumcitrat-losung.)
Manufacture: Dissolve potassium bicarbonate 8 Gm., citric acid 6 Gm., each, in distilled water 40 Ml. (Cc), filter solutions separately, wash each filter with distilled water q. s. 50 Ml. (Cc), mix solutions, when effervescence ceases transfer to bottle and stopper tightly. It is a clear, colorless, aqueous liquid (solution), odorless, mildly saline taste, slightly acid reaction; contains 8 p. c. of citrate of potassium, with small amounts of citric and carbonic acids; must not be dispensed unless recently prepared. Dose, ℥ss-2 (15-00 Ml. (Cc.)).
Properties. - Refrigerant, diaphoretic, diuretic, antiscorbutic, arterial sedative, similar to the acetate.
USES. - Febrile affections (this action is increased with sweet spirit of nitre or antimonial wine), remittent, intermittent fevers with hot, dry skin. If given with lemon juice, beneficial in rheumatism, uric acid diathesis, acute bronchitis (first stages).
Potassii Bitartras. Potassium Bitartrate, KHC4H4O5. - (Syn., Pot. Bitart., Cream of Tartar, Acid Potassium Tartrate, Supertartrate of Potassa, Crystals of Tartar, Kali Bitartaricum, Bitartras Potas-sicus (Kalicus), Cremor Tartari; Br. Potassii Tartras Acidus; Fr. Bitartrate de Potasse, Pierre de Vin; Ger. Tartarus depuratus, Weinstein.)
Manufacture: By purifying argol (crude tartar), which deposits in wine casks as a result of fermenting grape-juice. This argol is taken from the sides and bottom of the casks, boiled in water, clay added to precipitate coloring matter, filtered through animal charcoal, crystallized; to remove the 5-15 p. c. calcium tartrate present, dissolve in boiling water, add 8-10 p. c. hydrochloric acid, stir while cooling. It is in colorless or slightly opaque, rhombic crystals, or a white, somewhat gritty powder, odorless, pleasant, acidulous taste, permanent, soluble in water (155), boiling water (16), alcohol (8820); saturated aqueous solution acid; contains 99.5 p. c. of pure salt. Tests: 1. Heat on platinum foil - chars with inflammable vapors having odor of burning sugar; at higher temperature, with free access of air, carbon of black residue is consumed leaving a white, fused mass of potassium carbonate, which is alkaline and effervesces strongly with acids. 2. Aqueous solution with cobaltic nitrite T. S. - yellow precipitate; neutralize saturated aqueous solution with potassium hydroxide T. S., add silver nitrate T. S. + ammonia water q. s. to dissolve white precipitate, boil - silver deposits as mirror on sides of test-tube. Impurities: Heavy metals, lead, alum, starch, kaolin, calcium phosphate, other insoluble matter. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, aperient, gr. 10-60 (.6-4 Gm.); hydragogue cathartic, 3ss-4 (2-15 Gm.); diuretic, gr. 10-60 (.6-4 Gm.), ter die.