Fig. 445. - Potassium chlorate crystal.

pressure that might cause ignition or explosion, form mass with water q. s., divide into 100 troches. Dose, 1-4 troches.

Properties. - Alterative, stimulant, oxidizant, irritant, diuretic, poisonous; converts haemoglobin into methaemoglobin, disintegrates red corpuscles.

Uses. - Mercurial salivation and ulcers of the mouth, ulcerated stomatitis, aphthae, buccal and pharyngeal diphtheria, hemorrhoids, thrush, croup, ozaena, fetid breath, dysentery, vaginitis, cystitis. Internally in scrofula, scarlatina, typhoid fever, cardiac cyanosis, dropsy, blood-poisoning, malignant fevers. Mostly excreted by the kidneys unchanged.

Poisoning: Excessive quantities (3ij-4; 8-15 Gm.) produce vomiting, diarrhoea, dyspnoea, heart-failure, cyanosis, nervous disturbance, jaundiced skin, delirium, coma, acute nephritis, death. Induce vomiting and give abundant water, mucilaginous drinks to dilute, opium for pain, amyl nitrite, keep loins warm, avoid renal stimulants.

Potassii Hypophosphis. Potassium Hypophosphite, KH2PO2. - (Syn., Pot. Hyphophos., Kalium Hypophosphorosum, Hypophosphis (Potassicus) Kalicus; Fr. Hypophosphite de Potasse; Ger. Unterphos-phorigsaures Kali.)

Manufacture: Mix solutions of potassium carbonate and calcium hypophosphite, getting double decomposition - Ca(H2PO2)2 + K2CO3 = 2KH2PO2 + CaCO3, filter from the calcium carbonate, evaporate, granulate. It occurs in white, opaque, hexagonal plates, crystalline masses, or granular powder, odorless, pungent, saline taste, very deliquescent, soluble in water (.6), boiling water (.4), alcohol (9), boiling alcohol (5); aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral, slightly alkaline; with sodium bitartrate T. S. - white, crystalline precipitate; contains, when dried, 98 p. c. of pure salt. Tests: 1. Heat in dry test-tube - spontaneously inflammable hydrogen phosphide which burns with bright yellow flame. 2. Add aqueous solution (1 in 20), acidulated with hydrochloric acid, drop by drop with agitation, to excess of mercuric chloride T. S. - white precipitate of mercurous chloride; now add solution of potassium hypophosphite - precipitate becomes gray from reduction to metallic mercury. Impurities: Arsenic, phosphates. Should be kept dry, in well-closed containers, and dispensed with caution, as explosion may occur when triturated or heated with nitrates, chlorates, or other oxidizing agents. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

Preparations. - 1. Syrupus Hypophosphitum. Syrup of Hypo-phosphites. (Syn., Syr. Hypophos., Syrupus Calcii Hypophosphitis Compositus; Fr. Sirop d'Hypophosphite de Chaux compose; Ger. Hypophosphitsirup.)

Manufacture: Triturate calcium hypophosphite 4.5 Gm., potassium hypophosphite 1.5 Gm., sodium hypophosphite 1.5 Gm., with distilled water 50 Ml. (Cc.) until dissolved, add diluted hypophosphorous acid .2 Ml. (Cc), filter, pass through filter distilled water q. s. 54 Ml.

((v.), add glycerin 5 Ml. (Cc), sugar 60 Gm., dissolve by agitation, a<l<l through filter distilled water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc), strain. Do 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Prep.: Syrupus Hypophosphitum Composition, official 1900-1910 (rub ferric hypophosphite 2.25 Gm., manganese hypophosphite 2.25 Gm. with sodium citrate 3.75 Gm., add water 30 Ml. (Cc), heat gently until solution clear, green; dissolve hypophosphites of calcium 35 Gm., potassium 17.5 Gm., sodium 17.5 Gm., in water 450 Ml. (Cc.) + diluted hypophosphorous acid 5 Ml. (Cc); dissolve quinine 1.1 Gm., strychnine .115 Gm. in water 30 Ml. (Cc.) + glycerin 50 Ml. (Cc), and 10 Ml. (Cc.) diluted hypophosphorous acid, mix solutions, and in them dissolve sugar 700 Gm., by agitation, strain, add water, q. s. 1,000 Ml. (Cc). Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc)).

Properties and Uses. - Potassium hypophosphite is believed to be of great advantage owing to the phosphorus. Used in phthisis, depleted nerve-power, scrofulous affections, chronic bronchitis, coughs (expectorant).

Potassii Bromidum. Potassium Bromide, KBr. - (Syn., Pot. Brom., Bromuretum (Potassicum) Kalicum; Fr. Bromure de Potassium; Ger. Kalium bromatum, Kaliumbromid, Bromkalium.)

Manufacture: Add bromine to solution potassium hydroxide until liquid remains colored, thereby producing bromide and bromate, evaporate to dryness, mix with charcoal, heat to redness, thus converting all of the bromate into bromide - (1) 6KOH + 6Br = 5KBr + KBrO3 + 3H2O. (2) 2KBrO3 + 6C = 2KBr + 6CO. The KBr is dissolved out of the mass with water, and solution allowed to crystallize. The salt may also be made by decomposing bromide of iron with potassium carbonate - K2CO3 + FeBr2 = 2KBr + FeCO3. The iron carbonate is precipitated, while potassium bromide remains in solution. It is in colorless or white cubical crystals or granular powder, odorless, strongly saline taste, permanent, soluble in water (1.5), boiling water (1), alcohol (250), boiling alcohol (21), glycerin (4.6); aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral or faintly alkaline; contains 98.5 p. c of pure salt. Tests: 1. Heat upon platinum foil - decrepitates; at higher temperature fuses without decomposition, at bright red volatilizes with violet flame. 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 5) and sodium bitartrate T. S. each 5 Ml. (Cc.) - white, crystalline precipitate; with silver nitrate T. S. - yellowish-white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid or ammonia water. Impurities: Heavy metals, barium, alkalies, bromate, iodide, sulphate. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 10-60 (.6-4 Gm.), ter die, in water, elixir, syrup. In strychnine-poisoning give 3iij-4 (12-15 Gm.) at once; in tetanus the same amount within 24 hours.

Preparations. - (Unoff.): Sal Potassii Bromidi Effervescens, 16.6 p. c. Sal Potassii Bromidi Effervescens Compositus, 8.3 p. c + caffeine .8, lithium carbonate 4.2, + . Elixir Potassii Bromidi, 17.5 p. c, dose, 3ij-4 (8-15 Ml. (Cc)).

Properties. - Sedative, hypnotic, anaesthetic, narcotic, antiseptic, anaphrodisiac. All bromides in the stomach and intestines are converted quickly into sodium bromide, and as such are absorbed. Large doses lessen force and frequency of heart-beat, causing a stoppage in diastole. Eliminated by kidneys, skin, intestinal and bronchial mucous membranes, in saliva, milk.