1. Anacyclus Officina'Rum, German Pellitory

Anacyclus Officina'Rum, German Pellitory. Cultivated in Saxony, Bohemia, Prussia, near Magdeburg, and is considered to be the annual form of the official plant; root 6 Mm. (') thick, smaller than official, bark thick with 1 circle of resin-cells, medullary rays without resin-cells.

2. Chrysan'themum (Pyrethrum) ro'seum and C. car'neum, Persian Pellitory - Persian (Caucasian) Insect Powder; W. Asia, Persia. Perennial plants, resembling chamomile; flower-heads 4 Cm. (1 3/5') broad"; ray-florets rose-color with anthers included (roseum), or purple with anthers projecting (carneum); used only for killing insects, the toxicity being due to pyrethron (pyrethrotoxic acid - cardiac depressant like veratrine), a neutral, amber-yellow syrupy ester (pyretol) soluble in alcohol, ether, splitting into pyrethrol, C21H34O, and several acids, pyrethresin.

3. C. cinerariarfo'lium, Dalmatian Insect Powder; Dalmatia. These flowers are most valuable when collected immediately after expansion, and yield a more or less inferior insect powder. Tests: 1. Put 4 gr. (.25 Gm.) of the powder upon a fly in a vial - it should be stupefied in 1 minute and dead in 2 or 3 minutes. 2. With microscope can recognize scarcity of pollen and abundance of collenchymatous tissue when much stem and few flowers are used. Powder often adulterated with turmeric (chloroform test), chrome alum (ash not more than 6 p. a), and other compositous plant flowers, as Chrysanthemum Leucan'themum (Leucanthemum vulga're), white-weed, oxeye or field daisy, and C. seg'etum. Neither of these is an insecticide, but will produce dermatitis in some persons.

4. Tanace'Tum Vulga'Re, Tanacetum, Tansy

Tanace'Tum Vulga'Re, Tanacetum, Tansy. The leaves and tops, official 1820-1900; Europe, Asia. Perennial herb, .6-1 M. (2-3°) high; stem obscurely hexagonal, striated, often reddish; root fibrous, many-headed; flowers yellowish discoid, dense, terminal corymbs; fruit achene, small, oblong, 5-6 ribs, crowned with pappus. Leaves, 15 Cm. (6') long, bipinnatifid, segments obtuse, oblong, serrate, glandular, receptacle convex, naked, florets tubular; odor strong, aromatic; taste pungent, bitter; contains volatile oil .25 p. c, tanacetin, fat, resin, tannin, mucilage; solvents: alcohol, water. Stimulant, tonic, emmenagogue, anthelmintic, diuretic, narcotic; large doses cause vomiting, convulsions, coma, mydriasis, feeble respiration and pulse, death from paralytic asphyxia. Used in inter-mittents, hysteria, amenorrhoea, colic, aborti-facient; locally for bruises, sprains, rheumatism, ulcers. Dose, gr. 15-00 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)); fluidextract, exv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)); infusion, 5 p. c, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)); oil, ej-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)).

5. T. vulgare var. cris'puw, Double Tansy. - Leaves twice pinnatifid, curled. T. Balmm'ita (Pyrethrum Tanacetum), S. Europe; odor strong, taste bitter. Both often cultivated and used similar to T. vulgare.

Fig. 425.   Tanacetum vulgare: flower; a, single flower.

Fig. 425. - Tanacetum vulgare: flower; a, single flower.