Rosa Centifo'Lia, Pale Rose. The petals, collected after expanding, official 1820-1900; W. Asia. Plant erect, 1-2 M. (3-6°) high, similar to but larger than Rosa gallica; stems covered with prickles, larger ones hooked; leaves imparipinnate, 2 pairs of opposite leaflets; flowers large, double, calyx persistent; fruit (hip) scarlet to orange-red, oblong, containing many 1-seeded achenes. Petals numerous, roundish-obovate, retuse, or obcordate, pink, fragrant, sweetish, slightly bitter, faintly astringent; contain volatile oil, mucilage, sugar, tannin, malates, phosphates (quercitrin?). This, although often mistaken for the Damask rose, is no doubt the most anciently cultivated variety of R. gallica, and exists in many hybrid forms which are employed indiscriminately. Used as mild carminative, for distilling the oil and official stronger rose water - the latter being of fine flavor, and more used in this country, owing to prevalence and cheapness, than the imported. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.). R. cani'na, Dog Rose, United States; leaflets 5-7, ovate, serrate, flowers pink, white; R. blan'da, R. nit'i-da, also employed.
2. R. damasce'na, Damascus Rose. - The volatile oil distilled from fresh flowers, official 1880-1910; India, N. Africa, S. France, Bulgaria (Roumelia). Plant,' prickly, resembling the ordinary rose bush, cultivated in hedge-like rows on southern slope of Balkan Mountains.
Fig. 158. - Rosa canina.
Oil (otto, attar of rose) pale yellow, transparent liquid, fragrant rose odor, mild sweetish taste, sp. gr. 0.860, alcohol (70 p. c.) precipitates stearoptene but dissolves eleoptene, congeals at 18-22° C. (64-72° F.); consists of solid portion (stearoptene) 12-14 p. c, being a mixture of odorless hydrocarbons, C20H42, etc., and a liquid portion (eleoptene) composed of (1) geraniol (rhodinol), C10H18O, 75 p. c., most fragrant, oxidized into aldehyde, citral (rhodinal), readily soluble in alcohol, (2) citronellol, C10H20O, small amount; when congealed should be liquefied by warming before dispensing. Adulterations: Spermaceti, paraffin (crystallize in opaque crust), fixed oils, volatile oils of guaiac-wood, palmarosa, rose geranium, etc. - having one or more similar ingredients (geraniol, etc.), recognized by congealing point and saponification value (10-17). Stimulant, carminative, aromatic; chiefly in perfumery, flavoring.
3. Rubus villo'sus, R. nigrobac'cus, R. cuneifo'lius, Blackberry, Dewberry. - The dried bark of the rhizome, official 1820-1910; N. America, fields, thickets, cult. Pubescent perennials; stems angular, woody, with stout recurved prickles; leaflets 3-5, ovate, cuneate, petiolate, serrate, rough above, pubescent beneath, 2.5-10 Cm. (1-4')
Fig. 159. - Rubus villosus: transverse section of bark, magnified 15 diam.
long; flowers white, racemes; fruit (aggregate drupe - carpels 20 +), 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') black, pulpy, delicious. Bark of rhizome 1-2 Mm. (A A') thick, in long, tough, flexible bands or quills, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4) broad, brownish, grayish-brown, smooth or scaly, inner surface yellowish, coarsely striate, fracture tough-fibrous, readily splitting; inodorous; taste strongly astringent, bitterish; solvents: boiling water, diluted alcohol; contains tannin 12-17.5 p. c, gallic acid .4 p. c, villosin (saponin) .8 p. c, resin 7 p. c, volatile oil, fixed oil, wax, ash 3 p. c. Astringent, tonic, similar to tannin; diarrhoea - children and adults in summer. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.); fluidextract (diluted alcohol), x-60 (.6-4 Ml. (Cc.)); syrup, 25 p. c., 3j-4 (4-15 Ml. (Cc.)); decoction, 5 p. c. (water or milk), ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)); syrup of fruit (juice 100, sugar 200 - heat); wine; brandy. 4. R: Idoe'us, Raspberry - The fruit, official 1880-1900; Europe, X. Asia. Shrub 2 M. (6°) high, glaucous, spinose; leaves impari-pinnate, 1-3 pairs, sessile, ovate, serrate, whitish, downy leaflets; flowers white, 5's. Fruit, deprived of conical receptacle (hollow base), hemispherical, red, finely hairy, composed of 20-30 coalesced, small drupes, each one crowned with withered style, juice red; odor agreeable; taste pleasant, slightly acidulous; contains volatile oil (trace), citric acid, malic acid, sugar 5 p. c., pectin, coloring matter. Refrigerant, mild laxative, dietetic; used as edible fruit and for preparing syrup (juice 100, sugar 200 - heat). The closely related light red fruit of R. strigo'sus (L. strigilis, set with stiff straight bristles), Wild Red Raspberry, and purplish-black fruit of R. occidenta'lis, Black Raspberry, Thimbleberry, may be substituted; both plants grow wild and under cultivation throughout N. America, supplying fruit that is in great demand, and a juice that ferments into wine, which upon distillation yields brandy more or less popular in bowel affections.
Fig. 160. - Rubus Idaeus.
Fig. 161. - Potentilla Tormentilla: rhizome and transverse section.