5. Ge'Um Rim'Le, Purple (Water) Avens

Ge'Um Rim'Le, Purple (Water) Avens. The rhizome, official 1820-1880; N. America. Perennial plant .3-.6 M. (1-2°) high, stem purple; leaves 3-foliate or 3-lobed; flowers purplish-orange. Rhizome 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, 6 Mm. (1/4') thick, tuberculate, wrinkled, brownish-red; bark thin, wood-wedges white, pith large; aromatic, astringent, bitter; contains volatile oil, tannin, bitter principle. Used as astringent, tonic, in diarrhoea, hemorrhage, leucorrhoea, phthisis, scrofula, rheumatism, intermittents, dyspepsia, menstrual derangements; in decoction, infusion, tincture. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).

6. Potentil'La Tormentil'La, Tormentil

Potentil'La Tormentil'La, Tormentil. The rhizome, official 1820-1880; Europe. Plant resembles P. canaden'sis, Cinquefoil, perennial, 25-30 Cm. (10-12') high, green or reddish leaves, trifoliate; leaflets cuneate; flowers yellow; fruit achenes, reniform. Rhizome 5 Cm. (2') long, 12 Mm. (J') thick, tuberculate, brownish-red; bark thin, woodwedges small, distant; pith large, inodorous, astringent; contains tannin 25 p. c., red coloring matter (tormentil-red), kinovic acid, ellagic acid. Used as astringent, tonic like kino and catechu, for diarrhoea, dysentery, spongy gums (gargle), ulcers, gleet; in decoction, infusion. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).

7. Quilla'Ja Sapona'Ria, Soap Bark

Quilla'Ja Sapona'Ria, Soap Bark. The dried bark deprived of periderm, official 1880-1910; Chile, cult. in N. Hindustan. Tree, 15 18 M. (50-60°) high; leaves oval, evergreen, coriaceous; flowers white, monoecious; fruit capsule with persistent calyx, many-seeded. Bark in flat pieces of variable length, 3-8 Mm. (1/8-1/3') thick, or small chips, whitish, often with cork patches, nearly smooth, occasional depressions, projections or channels; fracture uneven, fibrous; odor

Fig. 162.   Quillaja Saponaria.

Fig. 162. - Quillaja Saponaria.

slight; taste acrid; powder strongly sternutatory; solvents: alcohol, hot water; contains saponin (quillajic acid, C19H30O10 + quillaja-sapo-toxin, C17H26O10), C32H54O18, 9 p. c., starch, gum, saccharose, calcium oxalate and sulphate. Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, irritant, sternutatory, detergent, local anaesthetic, antipyretic, paralyzant to heart and respiration, irritant to respiratory passages, poison to voluntary muscles; like senega; bronchitis, coryza, rhinitis, emulsifying agent, eruptions, scalp sores, fetor of feet, hair tonics, washing silks. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); fluidextract, v-15 (.3-1 Ml. (Cc.)); tincture, 20 p. a, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

8. Spirae'A Tomento'Sa, Hardhack

Spirae'A Tomento'Sa, Hardhack. The root, official 1820-1880; N. America; shrub, .6-1 M. (2-3°) high, stem ferruginous, tomentous, leaves dark green, but rusty-white beneath; flowers purple; fruit 1-seeded pod; root consists of brown, bitter, astringent bark, and hard, white, tasteless wood; contains tannin, bitter principle, volatile oil. Used as astringent, tonic in diarrhoea, cholera infantum, hemorrhages, gonorrhoea, ulcers, etc.; in infusion, decoction, extract. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.).

Fig. 163.   Quillaja Saponaria, longitudinal section: bf, bast fibre; bp, sieve parenchyma; s, sieve tube; m, medullary ray; K, crystal.

Fig. 163. - Quillaja Saponaria, longitudinal section: bf, bast-fibre; bp, sieve-parenchyma; s, sieve-tube; m, medullary ray; K, crystal.

9. Porteran'thus stipula'tus (Gille'nia stipula'cea), Indian Physic, and P. trifolia'tus (G. trifolia'ta), American Ipecac. - The root, official 1820-1880; United States; shrubs .6-1 M. (2-3°) high, stems reddish-brown, leaves trifoliate; leaflets 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, pubescent; flowers white, pink; root (rhizome) 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1'), thick, with thin bark and many-fissured rootlets, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4') thick, bitter; contains gillenin, resin, tannin. Used as emetic (substitute for ipecac), purgative, tonic; in infusion, decoction, tincture. Was very popular with North American Indians. Dose, emetic, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); tonic, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.).