Oleum Rosmarini. Oil of Rosemary, official.
A volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowering tops.
Habitat. Mediterranean Basin - Spain to Asia Minor, N. Africa, reaching to Madeira and the Canary Islands; cultivated in gardens.
Syn. Garden Rosemary, Old-man, Folia Rosmarini, Folia Roris Marini, Folia Anthos; Fr. Romarin; Ger. Rosmarin, Meerthau; 01. Rosmar., Rosemary Oil, Oleum Anthos; Fr. Essence de Romarin; Ger. Rosmarinol.
Ros-ma-ri'nus. L. ros, dew, mist, + marinus, maris, of the sea - sea foam - i. e., from its maritime habitat and glaucous appearance. Rosemary - not Mary's rose.
Of-fi-ci-na'lis. L. see etymology of (Asagroea) officinalis, page 102.
Plant. - Small perennial shrub 1-1.3 M. (3-4°) high, bushy, much branched; bark pale brown, twigs tomentose; flowers April-May, bilabiate, upper lip 2-parted, lower 3-divided, middle one being the largest, pale blue; fruit achenes, subglobose, smooth; leaves evergreen, many, sessile, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, linear, both ends blunt, entire, margins revolute, dark green, shining above, woolly with white, stellate hairs beneath, like the flowers, with aromatic fragrance, camphor-like; taste bitter.
Constituents. - Volatile oil 1 p. c, resin, tannin, bitter principle.
Oleum Rosmarini. Oil of Rosemary. - This volatile oil, obtained by distilling the fresh flowering tops with water or steam, is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic odor of rosemary, camphoraceous taste, soluble in 10 vols. of 80 p. c. alcohol, sp. gr. 0.903, dextrorotatory; contains pinene, C10H16, 80 p. c, camphene, cineol, C10H18O, camphor, C10H18, also at least 2.5 p. c. of ester, calculated as bornyl acetate, C10H17C2H3O2, and 10 p, c. of total borneol, C10H17OH. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, ej-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)).
Adulterations. - Oil: Oil of turpentine, etc., recognized by odor and not being affected by an equal volume of alcohol, which dissolves out oil of rosemary.
Commercial. - The Dalmatian (Italian) oil of rosemary, distilled after the flowering season is over, and the French, distilled from the flowering tops and of finer odor, are the chief commercial varieties, the English, from cultivated plants, and the Spanish being high priced, greatly esteemed by some, but little used.
Fig. 343. - Rosmarinus officinalis: branch and flowers.
Preparations. - 1. Linimentum Saponis, 1 p. c. 2. Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, 1/5 p. c.
Unoff. Prep.: Spiritus Rosmarini (Br.), oil 10 p. c.
Properties. - Carminative, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, emmen-agogue; excessive doses cause death.
Fig. 344. - Rosmarinus officinalis: st, stamen with anther; n, style with stigma.
Uses. - Colic, nervous disorders, menstrual derangements; externally in rheumatism, sprains, bruises. Stimulates the hair in alopecia, reduces temperature, and imparts violet odor to urine; mainly used in liniments, lotions, ointments, perfumery.
Tops or Leaves, official 1820-1890.