Fructose, Fruit-Sugar (Levulose) Cho. This often accompanies grape-sugar in fruits, honey, etc., sometimes in plants with cane-sugar. It is usually a colorless uncrystallizable syrup, nearly as sweet as cane-sugar, laevorotatory, soluble in water. May be produced from inulin by diluted acids; with nascent hydrogen yields mannite, with nitric acid is oxidized into succinic, acetic, and oxalic acids.
3. Inosite, Phaseo-mannite, C6H12O6.2H2O. - Found in juices of some meats, green fruits (Leguminosae), asparagus, etc.; it is very sweet, crystallizes from water, alcohol; does not ferment, but with nitric acid yields explosive compounds and oxalic acid.
4. Syrupus Fuscus, Molasses (Melasses), official 1860-1870. Have two kinds: 1, W. India; black, ropy, peculiar odor, sweet, empyreu-matic taste; yields by fermenting and distilling commercial rum, and is the kind once official; 2, Sugar House (Golden Drips, Grocer's Syrup); same as preceding, only thicker, different flavor, often largely adulterated with glucose, sp. gr. 1.40, contains solid matter 75 p. c. Both kinds have uncrystallizable sugar with some cane-sugar which failed to crystallize out; also have gum, coloring matter. If these be boiled with a strong solution of potassium dichromate, get violent reaction, green liquid; but if adulterated with one-eighth starch-sugar molasses, the reaction is wanting, color not changed.
Rock Candy, Saccharum Crystallizatum. Heat concentrated cane-sugar syrup, add spirit, and upon cooling, white, transparent, oblique, 4-sided prisms form; this is the purest kind of sugar.
Barley-Sugar, Saccharum Hordeatum. Cane-sugar melted carefully (185° C; 365° F.) and suddenly cooled; it is amorphous, yellowish, transparent, gradually becoming crystalline and opaque externally.
Caramel, Cho. This results from cane-sugar parting with 2H2O by being heated to 204° C. (400° F.) for a short time - with a little alkali or alkali carbonate to hasten the conversion; it is dark brown, bitter, consisting of colorless bitter caramelan, C12H18O9, red-brown caramelene, and other compounds. Used in coloring liquid preparations.