Saccharum officinarum, Linne, Beta vulgaris, Linne, var. Rapa.

Sucrose, C12H22O11, obtained from cultivated varieties, and other sources.

Habitat. S. Asia, cultivated in tropics and subtropics, Africa, E. and W. Indies, Cuba, Brazil, S. United States, especially Louisiana. The sugar beet in France, Germany; cultivated in Kansas, California, Nebraska, Utah.

Syn. Sacch., Sucrose, Cane-sugar; Br. Saccharum Purificatum, Refined Sugar (Sucrose); Fr. Sucre Blanc officinal, Sucre de Canne, Sucre; Ger. Zucker, Rohr-zucker, Weisserzucker.

Sac'cha-rum. L. sugar, Gr.

Saccharum Sugar 149

fr. Ar. sukkar, Hung, zukur, ML. succarum alter succus, a juice, fr. Skt. carkara, candied sugar, orig. grit, gravel.

Of-fi-ci-na'rum. L. officina, workshop - i. e., opus, work, + facere, to do, = of or belonging to the shop or store.

Be'ta. L. the beet, fr. Celtic belt, red - i. e., the red color of the roots.

Vul-ga'ris. L. ordinary, common - i. e., the kind most universally found wild.

Ra'pa. L. rapa, fr. rapum, turnip - i. e., the resemblance of the roots.

Plants. - Saccharum officinarum, Sugar Cane, perennial herb; rhizome thick, jointed, solid; roots fibrous; stems many, 2-4.5 M. ((5-15°) high, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') thick, jointed, solid, containing white juicy pith, and, according to variety, outside yellow, greenish-yellow, purple, or striped, joints 7.5 Cm. (3') apart, giving rise to encircling leaves; leaves 1-1.2 M. (3-4°) long, 5 Cm. (2') wide, flat, acuminate, white, midrib, longitudinally striate, dentate; flowers pinkish, in large terminal panicles; Beta vulgaris, var. Rapa, Common, Sugar Beet - Chenopodiaceae; herb with biennial fleshy root, 30-37.5 Cm. (12-15') long, 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') thick, conical, deep purple or yellow; stem .6-1.2 M. (2-4°) high, paniculately branched; leaves - radical 15-30 Cm. (6-12') long, petioles 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long - cauline smaller as nearing apex; flowers July-Aug., axillary clusters. Sugar, in white, hard, dry crystals, white, crystalline powder, odorless, sweet taste, permanent, soluble in water (.5), boiling water (.2), alcohol (170), insoluble in chloroform, ether; saturated aqueous solution (syrup) neutral, dextrorotatory, sp. gr. 1.340; by ferments in air or by boiling with diluted acids syrup is converted into invert sugar (dextrose + levulose) which then is directly fermentable and reduces red cuprous oxide from alkaline solution of cupric oxide; kept for a time at 180° C. (356° F.) becomes converted into levulosane, C6H10O5, and dextrose (glucose), C6H12O6, without loss of weight. Tests: 1. Saturated solution in large, well-closed, completely filled bottle - deposits no sediment on prolonged standing (abs. of insoluble salts, ultramarine, Prussian blue). 2. Aqueous solution (2 in 1) viewed horizontally through vertical cylinder of 25 Mm. (1') diameter - colorless; incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c.

Adulterations. - Inferior sugars whitened with ultramarine or Prussian blue, insoluble salts, calcium, chloride, sulphate.

Commercial. - Plants of the sugar cane (there being several varieties) all resemble more or less our Indian corn, produce shoots readily, and are cultivated by cuttings planted in rows, while those of the sugar beet are practically acaulescent, biennial, and grown directly by planting the seeds annually under careful tillage, in rich soil. Cane-sugar was used by the ancients only as a medicine, being brought first from India to Europe by the Venitians during the Crusades; with the discovery of Cape of Good Hope and sea route to E. Indies the Portuguese secured its commercial control, after which cultivation extended to Arabia, Egypt, Sicily, Spain, Canaries, America, W. Indies (1494). It is obtained by cutting off ripe cane stems near the ground, or pulling up and washing beet roots deprived of leaves, and passing them (stems, roots) through iron rollers, thereby expressing the grayish, turbid, sweet juice, which is run into shallow copper pans and boiled with lime (1 in 800) to neutralize free acid and to clarify (by coagulating albumen and gluten - removed by occasional skimming), and, when sufficiently concentrated, tenacious and granular, transferring to coolers, where it is stirred frequently, thence to casks with perforated bottoms, where it is drained 24 hours and then strongly agitated with wooden stirrers, causing granulation in 6 hours, thus yielding yellowish raw, open pan, muscovado sugar, which is packed into hogsheads and exported, the drainings being known as treacle or molasses. It is refined by dissolving in water with steam, heating with bullock's blood, skimming, filtering through canvas bags, percolating through large cylinders of animal charcoal, evaporating the colorless percolate in steam vacuum pans (to reduce pressure and heat) at 77° C. (170° F.), and, when sufficiently concentrated, running off the product into conical molds (centrifugals) having orifices closed, from which, after solidification, stoppers are removed for draining

Fig. 25.   Saccharum officinarum.

Fig. 25. - Saccharum officinarum.

(treacle), loaves sugared by pouring over them saturated syrup, which by slow infiltration passes through carrying with it all coloring matter and impurities, without dissolving any crystallized sugar, thus yielding whitish refined, vacuum, pan, loaf sugar. Sugar may also be obtained from maple, birch, palm, etc.

Constituents. - Sugar cane: Juice 80 p. c, which contains sugar 16-21 p. c, water 78-84 p. c, mucilage, resin, fat, albumin .3-.4 p. c. Beets : Juice contains sugar 9-19 p. c, but yields only about 9 p. c, being more difficult to obtain, owing to excessive quantity of proteids, etc.

Preparations. - 1. Syrupus. Syrup. (Syn., Sirup, Simple Syrup, Syrupus (Simplex) Sacchari; Fr. Sirop (de Sucre) simple; Ger. Syrupus simplex, Weisser Sirup.)

Manufacture: Dissolve sugar 85 Gm., by cold percolation, or by heat, in distilled water 45 Ml. (Cc.), heat to boiling point, strain, add through strainer distilled water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.), mix thoroughly; should have sp. gr. 1.313, and contain 64.54 p. c, by weight, of sugar. Dose, ad libitum.

Preps.: 1. Compound or Medicated Syrups, Emulsions, as well as an ingredient of other preparations. 2. Liquor Magnesii Citratis, 60 p. c.

2. Emulsum Amygdala, 3 p. c. 3. Ferri Carbonas Saccharatus, 70 p. c. 4. Massa Ferri Carbonatis, 25 p. c. 5. Pilulae Ferri Carbonatis, 3/5 gr. (.04 Gm.). 6. Pilulae Ferri lodidi, 3/5 gr. (.04 Gm.). 7. Pulvis Cretae Compositus, 50 p. c. 8. Pulvis Glycyrrhizae Compositus, 50 p. c. 9. Trochisci (various kinds).

Properties. - Demulcent, lenitive, stimulant, laxative, aliment, condiment, externally in certain ulcerations.

Uses. - Chiefly as vehicle, corrigent, preservative, antiseptic, excipi-ent. Syrups protect ingredients against putrefaction, not always against fermentation, prevent iron preparations from oxidation; in troches, powders and mixtures covers taste of nauseous medicines, rendering insoluble substances more miscible with water; in food nutrient to adipose tissue, and a respiratory fuel; diuretic on healthy kidneys, has no effect on the teeth, good in cough, hoarseness, hiccough, aphthae, ulcers, wounds, corneal and eyelid granulation, chronic laryngitis, chronic ozaena (as snuff), ascarides (by injection), fumes destroy offensive effluvia.

Allied Products:

1. Glucosum. Glucose, C6H12O6, or hydrated, C6H12O6.H2O, official. - (Syn., Glucos., Syrupy Glucose, Liquid Glucose, Grape-sugar, Dextrose, Starch-sugar, Saccharum Amylaceum (Uveum); Fr. Sirop Cristal, Glucose Masse; Ger. Starke-, Trauben-, Kartoffel-zucker, Glukose, Glykose.)

Manufacture: From grapes, decomposition of glucosides, but chiefly by the incomplete hydrolysis of starch - boil starch (100), water (400), sulphuric acid (.5-1.25) until iodine gives no starch reaction, neutralize (free acid) with chalk, clarify and decolorize liquid with clay and animal charcoal, filter, concentrate in vacuum-pan, when much calcium phosphate separates, filter, concentrate for glucose (liquid) or grape-sugar (crystals). It is a colorless, slightly colored, thick, syrupy liquid; odorless or Dearly so; sweet taste; soluble in water, sparingly in alcohol; aqueous solution neutral, slightly acid; contains chiefly dextrose (d-glucose), C8H12O6, 34-43 p. c., and dextrins, 30 - 1.") p. c, maltose 0-19 p. c, water 14-23 p. c. Tests: 1. Add few drops of aqueous solution (1 in 20) to 5 Ml. (Cc.) of hot alkaline cupric tartrate T. S. - copious red precipitate of cuprous oxide (dist. from cane-sugar). 2. Incinerate - ash 1 p. c. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, cane-sugar, water, free acid, starch, sulphur dioxide. Dose, ad libitum.

PREPARATIONS. - 1. Pilular Extracts of Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Stramonium.

Properties and Uses. - Similar to cane-sugar, nearly equal to it as a food; diuretic, dropsy, etc. One-half as sweet as cane-sugar; acts as a strong reducing agent in alkaline solutions; calcium sulphite often added as a preservative which accounts for it decolorizing free iodine. Crystals whitish, yellowish, brownish, soluble in water (1); contains dextrose 64-99.5 p. c, dextrin 0-22 p. c. Syrupus Glucosi (Br.) - liquid glucose (25) and syrup (50).