Oleum Santali. Oil of Santal, official.

Santalum album,

Linne.

A volatile oil distilled from the wood, containing 90 p. c. of alcohols, calculated as santalol.

Habitat. S. India, E. Indian Islands, Malabar, Macassar (mountains); cultivated.

Syn. White Sandal Wood (young wood), White Saunders, Saunders, Yellow Sandal (old wood), Almug; 01. Santal., Santalwood Oil, Oil of Sandalwood, Oleum Ligni Santali, Oleum Santali Flavi; Fr. Santal Citrin; Essence de Santal, Oleum Santali aethereum; Ger. Gelber Sandel; Sandelol, Santelol, Ostendisches Sandel-holzol.

San'ta-lum. L. see etymology, above, of Santalaceae.

Al'bum. L. albus, white or light - i. e., the color of the sapwood.

Plant. - Small tree 6-9 M. (20-30°) high, bark grayish-brown; leaves oval, smooth, glaucous beneath; flowers small, numerous cymes; odorless, color variable, violet-pink, red, yellow. Wood, yellow inside (heartwood), white outside (sapwood). The heartwood only should be used, which natively is obtained by felling trees of .3 M. (12') diameter, hacking off sapwood, or allowing these trunks to remain on the ground until sapwood is eaten away by ants, thereby becoming 10-20

Cm. (4-8') thick. This, when rubbed, rasped, or heated, gives pleasant roseate odor.

Constituents. - Volatile oil 2-5 p. c., resin, tannin.

Oleum Santali. Oil of Santal. - This volatile oil, distilled from the wood, is a pale yellow, somewhat thick liquid, characteristic odor and taste of sandalwood, soluble in 5 vols. of 70 p. c. alcohol, solution being slightly acid, sp. gr. 0.972, laevorotatory; contains alcohols, calculated as santalol (most important constituent), C15H26O, 90 p. c., and santalal, C15H24O, both being decomposed by distillation over P2O5 - santalol yielding santalene, C15H24, and santalal giving C15H22; also present sesquiterpene, possibly acids. Tests: 1. Australian oil, sp. gr. 0.953,

Fig. 94.   Santalum album: flowering branch; also flower and fruit, enlarged.

Fig. 94. - Santalum album: flowering branch; also flower and fruit, enlarged.

and W. Indian oil, sp. gr. 0.965, are both dextrorotatory. 2. Should be clear in 10 vols. of 70 p. c. alcohol (abs. of cedar-wood oil, castor oil, other fatty oils). Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, v-20 (.3-1.3 Ml. (Cc.)).

Adulterations. - Castor oil, other fixed oils, chloroform, gurjun balsam oil, volatile oil of copaiba and of cedar-wood, made from lead-pencil chips by distillation, etc. While that distilled in India and Germany is a good article, that made in England is considered the best and purest, hence is more expensive.

Preparations. - (Unoff.) Wood: Fluidextract, dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)). Oil: Capsules. Emulsion. Massa. Pills. Wafers.

Properties. - Astringent, stimulant, diuretic, disinfectant, expectorant. Excreted by bronchial and genito-urinary mucous membranes, stimulating and disinfecting secretions of both.

USES. - Bronchitis, gonorrhoea, chronic and subacute inflammations of mucous membranes, cystitis, pyelitis, chronic diarrhoea. Very much like copaiba and cubeb in action, and should be continued some time after discharges have ceased. Extensively employed in perfumery. The wood is used natively for fevers, indigestion, palpitation, inflammations, skin diseases; also as incense in Chinese temples, and by cabinet-makers for caskets, jewel boxes, and as a perfume. There are three varieties: 1, Malabar; 2, Macassar; 3, W. Indian.

Allied Plants:

1. Santalum Freycinetia'num and S. pyrula'rium of the Sandwich Islands. S. Ya'si of the Feejee Islands. S. austro-caledon'icum of New Caledonia. All 3 furnish oil of good quality.

2. Venezuela Sandal Wood

Venezuela Sandal Wood. Rutaceae. This supplies the market with W. Indian sandalwood oil.