Pterocarpus santalinus,

Linne filius.

The heart-wood.

Habitat. Madras; cultivated in S. India, Ceylon, Philippines.

Syn. Santal. Rub.; Br. Pterocarpi Lignum, Red Saunders (Sandal) Wood, Red Santal, Chandam, Chundana, Ruby Wood; Fr. Santal Rouge; Ger. Rothes Sandel-holz.

Pter-o-car'pus. L. from Gr.

Santalum Rubrum Red Saunders 430

wing, +

Santalum Rubrum Red Saunders 431

fruit - i. e., its winged fruit pods or legumes girdled with a broad crisped wing.

San-ta-li'nus. L. adj. form fr. sandal, Pers. sandal, useful; Gr.

Santalum Rubrum Red Saunders 432

San ta-lum. L. noun form; sandalwood, saunders. Ru'brum. L. ruber, red, ruddy - i. e., the color of the wood.

Plant. - Tree 6-9 M. (20-30°) high, .3-.5 M. (12-18') thick, some trunks hollow; leaves trifoliate; leaflets broadly oval, emargi-nate, 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long, hoary beneath; flowers yellow, papilionaceous corolla, spikes; fruit orbicular legume, wing slightly crisped, 2-seeded. Heart-wood, in billets, logs, 1-1.6 M. (3-5°) long, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') thick, deprived of light-colored sap-wood, hard, heavy, dark reddish-brown, splitting coarse-splintery; usually in coarse powder, brownish-red, dark saffron, nearly odorless and tasteless; microscopically - numerous wood-fibres of irregular outline and sharp pointed ends, occasionally forked, lumina filled with fine, granular protoplasmic content, occasional tracheae filled with yellow, resinous masses, medullary rays 1 cell wide, 3-6 deep, crystal fibres with prisms of calcium oxalate; mounts in hydrated chloral T. S. - deep, rich red color. Tests: 1. Mix .5 Gm. with ether 10 Ml. (Cc.) - solution orange-yellow, with greenish fluorescence in bright light; .5 Gm. with alcohol 10 Ml. (Cc.) - solution distinctly red. 2. Mix .005 Gm. with water 10 Ml. (Cc.) - liquid clear and colorless. Solvents: alcohol; ether; acetic acid; alkaline solutions; boiling water or diluted alcohol partially.

Preparation. - 1. Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, 1 p. c.

Constituents. - Santalin .25-.5 p. c, Santal, Pterocarpin, Homop-terocarpin.

Santalin (santalic acid), C15H14O5. - Coloring matter, obtained by precipitating alcoholic tincture with lead acetate, washing precipitate with hot alcohol, decomposing it with hydrogen sulphide in the presence of alcohol, evaporating; occurs in red needles, inodorous, tasteless, resinous, soluble in alcohol (blood-red), ether (yellow), sulphuric acid (deep red), alkalies (violet), also in oils of clove, cinnamon, bergamot, bitter almond.

Santal, C8H6O3, Pterocarpin,C20H16O6, Homopterocarpin, C24H24O6. - All occur in colorless scales - the latter soluble in carbon disulphide and when fused with potassium hydroxide yields phloroglucin.

Uses. - Red Saunders has no important medicinal properties, being used only for imparting color. Employed natively as an astringent and with sapan wood for dyeing silk, cotton, wool, giving various reds according to mordants used.

Allied Plant:

1. Ichihyome'Thia Piscip'Ula (Piscid'Ia Erythri'Na), Jamaica Dog-Wood

Ichihyome'Thia Piscip'Ula (Piscid'Ia Erythri'Na), Jamaica Dog-Wood. W. Indies. Well-developed tree, whose bark has long been used tor catching fish, orange-yellow, fissured, tough, fibrous, odor opium-like, taste bitter, acrid. Narcotic, analgesic, soporific; neuralgia, nervous insomnia, whooping-cough, dysmenorrhoea; similar to opium, but devoid of unpleasant after-effects. Dose, 5ss-l (2-4 Gm.), extract, fiuidextract.