The fleshy, inner scales of the bulb of the white variety, cut into pieces and carefully dried.

Habitat. Mediterranean Basin, near the sea; Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, Algeria; in dry, sandy, also hilly localities.

Syn. Scill., Sea Onion, White or Red Squills; Fr. Scille, Squille; Ger. Bulbus Scillae, Meerzwiebel.

Ur-gin'e-a. L. urgere, to press, urge - i. e., its flattened, compressed seeds; or fr. Algerian Arab tribe Ben urgin.

Ma-rit'i-ma. L. maritimus, of the sea, maritime - i. e., its habitat near the sea.

Scil'la. L. fr. Gr.

Scilla Squill 174

to split - i. e., splits into scales;

Scilla Squill 175

an onion.

Fig. 40.   Urginea maritima.

Fig. 40. - Urginea maritima.

Fig. 41.   Scilla bulb, prepared for slicing.

Fig. 41. - Scilla bulb, prepared for slicing.

Plant. - Perennial herb; roots fibrous from base of large bulb; leaves appear long after flowers, several, .5-6 M. (1 1/2-2°) long, shining, deep green; flowers white, on succulent stem, .3-1 M. (1-3°) high, in close spike, no calyx, peduncles purplish; fruit, dry capsule 12 Mm. (1/2') long, oblong, 3-lobed, yellow, seeds 6 in each cell, 6 Mm. (1/4') long, flattened, purplish-brown. Bulb scales, in irregular, more or less curved, slightly flattened pieces, .5-5 Cm. (1/5-2') long, yellowish-white, somewhat translucert, nearly smooth and lustrous with slight projections of fibro-vascular bundles, brittle (dry), flexible (damp); odor slight; taste hitter, acrid, Powder, yellowish-white, caking in moist air; microscopically - irregular fragments, numerous single crystals and bundles of long raphides of calcium oxalate; fragments of colorless parenchyma often with dark intercellular spaces due to inclusion of air; few fragments with reticulate tracheae. Should be kept dry, in tightly-closed containers. Solvents: alcohol (75 p. c); diluted acetic acid; vinegar; water. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.), ter die until nauseated; gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.) usually will cause vomiting.

Commercial. - Plant recognized a valuable medicine from early times, but first cultivated in Europe, 1630; flowers in autumn, while leaves appear in the following spring. Bull), size of fist to child's head, often weighing 4 pounds (1.8 Kg.), grows half-immersed in the soil, being collected in August, deprived of dry outer scales and central portion (this latter of youngest growth and deficient activity), cut transversely into thin slices, and, owing to mucilaginous and hygroscopic qualities, dried carefully (negligence here yielding always inferior product), then packed in casks and shipped from Malta. When fresh abounds in viscid, acrid juice, which on handling produces excoriation with intolerable itching - a property lost upon drying without medicinal impairment. There are two kinds: 1, White (white scales); 2, Red (reddish-brown scales), both possessing identical properties, the former, however, being preferred, as it yields less colored solutions; loses on drying 80 p. c, and on exposure reabsorbs 11 p. c. of moisture, becoming moldy, hence the necessity of dry preservation.

Constituents. - Scillitin (scillipicrin, scillitoxin, scillin), Sinistrin, sugar 22 p. c, volatile oil, calcium oxalate 3-8 p. c, ash 3 p. c.

Scillitin. - Bitter principle, upon which activity depends, but it has never been obtained pure. Dose, gr. 1/6-1/2 (.01-.03 Gm.). Instead of this, Merck gives 3 active principles:

(1) Scillipicrin. - Bitter principle, yellowish-white, amorphous, soluble in water, hygroscopic; acts upon the kidneys. Dose, gr. 1/3-1 (.02-.06 Gm.).

(2) Sillitoxin (Scillain). - Glucoside, brown, bitter, burning taste, amorphous, insoluble in water, ether, soluble in alcohol; acts upon kidneys and heart. Dose, gr. 1/60-1/30 (.001-.002 Gm.).

(3) Scillin. - Crystalline, pale yellow, soluble in alcohol, hot ether; benumbs, induces vomiting. S. Wanizewski has suggested the following names for the active principles: (1) Scillapicrine, soluble in water, alcohol; (2) Scillamarine, soluble in chloroform, alcohol; (3) Scillinine, soluble in alcohol, insoluble in water, chloroform.

Sinistrin, C6H10O5. - White mucilage, resembles dextrin, laevorota-tory, easily converted into levulose by boiling with diluted sulphuric acid.

Preparations. - 1. Acetum Scillae. Vinegar of Squill. (Syn., Acet. Scill.; Fr. Vinaigre (Acetole) de Scille - scillitique; Ger. Meer-zwiebelessig.)

Manufacture: 10 p. c. Macerate for 7 days, shaking frequently, 10 Gm. with diluted acetic acid q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.), strain, heat to boiling, filter. Dose, v-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)).

Prep.: 1. Syrupus Scillae. Syrup of Squill. (Syn., Syr. Scill., Syrupus Aceti Scillae; Fr. Sirop de Scille; Ger. Meerzwiebel-sirup.) Manufacture: 4.5 p. c. Dissolve, with gentle heat, sugar 80 Gm. in vinegar of squill 45 Ml. (Cc.), strain, cool, add through strainer water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.), mix thoroughly. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

2. Fluidextractum Scillae. Fluidextract of Squill. (Syn., Fldext. Scill., Fluid Extract of Squill, Extractum Scillae Fluidum; Fr. Extrait fluide de Scille; Ger. Meerzwiebelfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Macerate for 2 hours 100 Gm. with a portion of alcohol 200 Ml. (Cc.) + water 100 Ml. (Cc.), pack, macerate for 48 hours, percolate with menstruum until 100 Ml. (Cc.) obtained; close lower orifice, macerate for 12 hours, collect a second 100 Ml. (Cc.), again interrupt percolation for 12 hours, and continue percolation until total percolate 500 Ml. (Cc.); reclaim alcohol, evaporate to 80 Ml. (Cc.), cool, add alcohol 200 Ml. (Cc.), set aside for 12 hours, decant supernatant liquid from the syrupy layer, filter the former, wash the latter twice with 80 p. c alcohol 30 Ml. (Cc.), adding washings through filter to previously collected alcoholic liquid, reclaim combined alcoholic liquid to 80 Ml. (Cc.), add diluted alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Dose, j-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)).

Prep.: 1. Syrupus Scillae Compositus. Compound Syrup of Squill. (Syn., Syr. Scill. Co., Hive Syrup, Croup Syrup; Fr. Sirop de Scille compose; Ger. Zusammengesetzter Meerzwiebel-sirup.) Manufacture: 8 p. c Dissolve with heat, antimony and potassium tartrate .2 Gm. in distilled water 1 Ml. (Cc.), add this to syrup 75 Ml. (Cc.), mix thoroughly, gradually add fluidextract of squill and fluidextract of senega each 8 Ml. (Cc.) previously mixed, add syrup q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Dose, v-60 (.3-4 Ml. (Cc.)). Cox's Hive Syrup differs from this preparation only in the use of honey instead of sugar as the preservative.

3. Tinctura Settles. Tincture of Squill. (Syn., Tr. Scill.; Fr. Tein-ture de Scille; Ger. Meerzwiebeltinktur.)

Manufacture: 10 p. c. Menstruum 75 p. c alcohol - moisten squill 10 Gm. with sufficient menstruum, macerate in closed vessel in moderately warm place for 24 hours, stirring occasionally, transfer to percolator, shake down evenly without packing, add menstruum, macerate for 24 hours, proceed slowly, gradually adding menstruum q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Dose, v-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Preps.: Acetic Extract, dose, gr. 1/6-2 (.01-.13 Gm.). Oxymel Scillae - vinegar of squill 50 Gm., clarified honey 100, reduce (heat) to 100. Pilula Settles Compbsita (Br.).

Properties. - Resembles digitalis; expectorant, diuretic, emetic, cardiac stimulant, cathartic, irritant. Large doses irritant poison, causing gastro-enteritis, strangury, bloody urine, convulsions, death by heart paralysis.

Uses. - Expectorant in croup, irritant coughs, whooping-cough, bronchitis, asthma, associated with ipecac, ammonia, asafetida, benzoin, etc. Owing to its irritating properties should not be given in acute stage. Diuretic in dropsies from cardiac disease, when it should be combined with digitalis or saline diuretics. Give to children with croup until nausea and vomiting occur. The Greeks, Romans, and Arabians used it in dropsies, ulcerated gums and throat, weak digestion. Fresh juice applied to abrasions is diuretic; to healthy skin rubefacient, which may be due to calcium oxalate needle-shaped crystals or to contained acrid resin-oid - here also get ultimately the diuretic effect.

Poisoning: Similar to digitalis. Evacuate stomach, give tannin, demulcents, opiates, stimulants, etc.

Allied Plants: