1. Spar'Tium Jun'Ceum, Spanish Broom

Spar'Tium Jun'Ceum, Spanish Broom. Leaves soft, hairy; seeds reniform, properties similar to Cytisus Scoparius; fibres used for cordage, coarse cloth, etc.

2. Baptis'Ia Tincto'Ria, Baptisia, Wild (False) Indigo

Baptis'Ia Tincto'Ria, Baptisia, Wild (False) Indigo. The whole plant, official 1830-1840; root now used; X. America. Plant .6-1 M. (2-3°) high, smooth, succulent, glaucous, disagreeable odor when bruised - repellent to insects, etc.; flowers yellow; root (most active), fleshy, .5-4 Cm. (2/5 - 1 3/5') thick, usually cut into elongated, cylindrical pieces; crown 5-8 Cm. (2-3 1/5') thick, warty, with stem scars; dark brown, wrinkled; fracture tough, whitish; taste bitter, acrid, nauseous; contains cytisine (baptitoxine - acrid, poisonous), baptisin (non-active bitter glucoside), baptin (purgative glucoside), ash 5 p. c.; used as a stimulant for scarlatina, typhus, dysentery; locally - aphthae, ulcers, etc.; in decoction, infusion, fluidextract (75 p. c. alcohol), tincture. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.); baptisin gr. 2-6 (.13-.4 Gm.); large doses emetic, cathartic - death by respiratory paralysis.

ARAROBA. GOA POWDER. Chrysarobinum. Chrysarobin, C30H26O7, official.

Vouacapoua Araroba,

(Aguiar) Druce.

A mixture of neutral principles extracted from Goa Powder, a substance found deposited in the wood of this plant.

Habitat. Brazil, Bahia; in damp forests.

Syn. Araroba or Arariba Tree, Po(h)de Bahia, Crude Chrysarobin; Chrysarob.; Fr. Poudre de Goa, Chrysarobine; Ger. Goa Pulvre, Chrysarobin. Vou-a-ca-pou'a. L. fr. native C. American name (nomen caribaeum), voicapou. Ar-a-ro'ba. L. fr. E. India name, ar(ar)oba, as applied to the bark. Chrys-ar-o-bi'num. L. for Chry-sar'o-bin, fr. Gr.

Scoparius Scoparius 440

gold, + ar(ar)oba. Go'a. After Portuguese colony of Goa, on the Malabar coast of India, to which it was imported from Bahia, in Brazil, 1852.

Plant. - Large tree 24-30 M. (80-100°) high; trunk smooth, spheroidal, head not very bushy; leaves paripinnate, with long petioles; flowers purple, paniculate racemes; wood yellow, with numerous longitudinal canals and many irregular transverse interspaces or lacunae in which the Goa Powder is found - a result of decay or chemical changes in the cell-walls of the trunk-wood (medullary rays), being possibly an antiseptic preservative of the plant; yields much chryso-phanic acid by oxidation.

Commercial. - Tree resembles the copaiba, and is called natively Angelim Amargoso; the oldest yield most powder, which is obtained by felling, splitting the tree, and then scraping the powder from the clefts, those doing this often suffering with irritated eyes and face; occurs as a light yellow powder when fresh, but brownish on exposure, slightly crystalline, rough, mixed with wood fibres, inodorous, bitter; 7 p. c. soluble in water, 80 p. c. in benzene, 50 p. c. in hot chloroform.

Constituents. - Goa powder: Chrysarobin 65-85 p. c, gum 7 p. c, resin 2 p. c, bitter extractive 7 p. c, woody fibre 5 p. c, ash .3-3 p. c.

Chrysarobinum. Chrysarobin. - Obtained by treating Goa Powder with hot benzene (hot chloroform), evaporating to dryness, powdering. It is a brownish, orange-yellow, micro-crystalline powder, tasteless, odorless, irritating mucous membrane, soluble in alcohol .(385), chloroform (12.5), ether (16), benzene (30), carbon disulphide (180), solutions of fixed alkali hydroxides (red), slightly in water and boiling water; contains methyl chrysarobin in varying percentage, and is a reduced quinone. Tests: 1. Dissolve in sulphuric acid - deep red solution, which poured into water deposits chrysarobin unchanged. 2. Incinerate .5 Gm. - ash .25 p. c.; shake 1 Gm. with potassium hydroxide T. S. (10) - yellow, yellowish-red, deep red, due to absorbing oxygen from the air, producing chrysophanic acid - C30H26O7 + O4 = 2C15H10O4 +3H2O, or inversely - 2C15H10O4+H8 = C30H26O7+H2O. 3. Mix .001 Gm. with 2 drops of fuming nitric acid - red mixture, turning violet-red with a few drops of ammonia water (dist. from chrysophanic acid

- yellow liquid). Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1/8 (.008 Gm.).

Preparation. - 1. Unguentum Chrysarobini. Chrysarobin Ointment. (Syn., Ung. Chrysarobin.; Fr. Pommade de Chrysarobine; Ger. Chrysarobinsalbe.)

Manufacture: 6 p. c. Triturate chrysarobin 6 Gm. with benzoinated lard 94 Gm. previously melted, heat on water-bath for 20 minutes, stirring occasionally, strain (thereby removing about 1 p. c), stir until congealed.

Properties. - Irritant, in doses of gr. 20 (1.3 Gm.) gastro-intestinal irritant, causing large watery, bilious stools, vomiting, nausea. Externally - produces diffuse dermatitis, followed by follicular and furun-cular inflammation; stains skin dark brown, removed by chlorinated lime.

Uses. - Parasitic skin diseases of vegetable origin, ringworm, acne, favus, psoriasis, chronic eczema,' hemorrhoids.

Allied Compounds: