Sparteinae Sulphas. Sparteine Sulphate, C15H26N2.H2SO4+5H2O, official.

Cytisus Scoparius,

(Lin-ne) Link.

The sulphate of sparteine, a liquid alkaloid from this plant.

Habitat. W. Asia, S. and W. Europe (W. Siberia, Great Britain) - sandy soil; naturalized in middle and southern United States; cultivated in gardens.

Syn. Broom, Green (Scotch, Common, Irish) Broom, Hagweed, Bannal; Spartein. Sulph.; Br. Scopari Cacumina, Broom Tops; Fr. Genet a balais; Sulfate de Sparteine; Ger. Besenginster, Pfriemenkraut; Sparteinsulfat.

Cyt'i-sus. L. fr. G.

Scoparius Scoparius 438

classic name, alter island of Cythrus, one of the Cyclades - i. e., where first found growing.

Sco-pa'ri-us. L. fr. scopae, twigs, shoots, a broom - i. e., made of twigs, twiggy.

Plant. - Shrub 1.2-2.4 M. (4-8°) high; stem 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') thick, with many pentangular, green, flexible, wand-like branches in close fascicles - suitable for broom-making; leaves alternate, small, oblong, downy, trifoliate; leaflets sessile, 6-12 Mm. (1/4-1/2') long, lanceolate; flowers May-June, many, large, racemes, brilliant yellow, papilionaceous; fruit pod, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') long, 6 Mm. (J') broad, compressed, 12-18-seeded, entire plant with peculiar odor, nauseous taste. Tops, in thin flexible branched twigs, 2-3 Mm. (1/12-1/8') thick, dark green, with 5 wings and numerous reddish-brown cork patches, internally yellowish, younger branches somewhat pubescent, fracture short fibrous, that of thick pieces tough, splintery, usually without leaves; odor peculiar when bruised; taste disagreeably bitter. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).

Constituents. - Sparteine .03 p. c., Scoparin (diuretic), volatile oil, tannin, fat, wax, sugar, ash 5-6 p. c.

Sparteinae Sulphas. Sparteine Sulphate. - Obtained by exhausting plant with acidulated (H2SO4) water, distilling concentrated infusion with sodium hydroxide, neutralizing the liquid sparteine (10) with 10 p. c. sulphuric acid (40), crystallizing. It is in colorless, rhombohedral crystals, crystalline powder, odorless, slightly saline, bitter taste, hygroscopic, soluble in water (1.1), alcohol (3), insoluble in chloroform, ether; aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral or acid. Tests: 1. Add to

Fig. 201.   Cytisus Scoparius: flowering branch.

Fig. 201. - Cytisus Scoparius: flowering branch.

.1 Gm., in test-tube, 25 Ml. (Cc.) of ether, a few drops of diluted ammonia water, then ethereal solution of iodine (1 in 50) until mixture, when shaken, turns from orange to reddish-brown; minute greenish-brown crystals soon coat sides. 2. Aqueous solution with barium chloride T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid; incinerate 1 Gm. - ash .1 p. c. Impurities: Ammonium salts, aniline, readily carbonizable organic substances. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1/6-1/2 (.01-.03 Gm.).

Properties. - Cardiac stimulant, narcotic; large doses paralyze respiratory and motor centres, causing convulsions and death by asphyxia; normal doses strengthen heart-beats, slow the rate (acting directly on cardiac muscle and inhibitory apparatus); may quicken heart when abnormally slow, acting as a regulator; action lasts 6-8 hours.

Uses. - Cardiac affections, palpitation; inferior to digitalis, although it has the advantage of quicker action (within 20 minutes) and no cumulative effect.

Poisoning: Similar to digitalis. Give strychnine, atropine, electricity (respiration), tannin, potassium iodide, diuretics, diluents.

Incompatibles: Tannic acid, potassium iodide.

Synergists: Digitalis, strophanthus, etc.

Dried Tops, official 1830-1910. More or less popular also for diuretic glucoside, scoparin, C21H22O10, pale yellow crystals, amorphous powder, soluble in water, dose, gr. 1-10 (.06-.6 Gm.); may use fluidextract (diluted alcohol), dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)); decoction, 5 p. c., ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)); infusum scoparii (Br.), 10 p. c., ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)); succus scoparii (Br.), 75 p. c., + alcohol 25, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)).

Allied Plants: