Fig. 179.   Cassia angustifolia: half natural size; A, leaflets; B, legumes.

Fig. 179. - Cassia angustifolia: half natural size; A, leaflets; B, legumes.

and dried even with less care, and contains many brown leaflets and legumes.

Constituents. - Anthraglucosennin, Emodin 1 p. c., Chrysophanic acid, Glucosennin, Isoemodin, Senna-rhamnetin, Sennanigrin, gum, resin, catharto-mannite (non-fermentable sugar), isomeric with quer-cite, sennapicrin, oxalic, malic, tartaric acids, combined with calcium, volatile oil (developing after drying), ash 10-12 p. c, of which 3 p. c. is insoluble in hydrochloric acid.

Anthraglucosennin. - Obtained (Tschirch) by evaporating a weak ammoniacal percolate of senna; it is a complex brownish-black powder, partly soluble in ether, acetone, capable of being resolved into components by various solvents; the ether-soluble portion (emodin, chrysophanic acid, glucosennin) when boiled with toluene, to a partial solution, and poured into benzin gives a precipitate - (senna-)emodin - trioxymethylanthraquinone, melting at 223° C. (434° F.), while in the benzin mother-liquor remains - (senna-)chrysophanic acid - dioxymethylanthraquinone, obtained by evaporation; the ether-soluble portion insoluble in toluene is an emodin glucoside - gluco-sennin, C22H18O8 (yellow amorphous powder). The ether-insoluble portion (isoemodin, senna-rhamnetin) when treated with acetone and shaken with benzin yields - (senna-)isoemodin, C15H10O5 (isomeric with (senna-)emodin, but differs in being soluble in benzin); the acetone solution retains - senna-rhamnetin (reddish-brown powder, differing from rhamnetin in not fluorescing in sulphuric acid solution); the an-

Senna Senna 404Fig. 180.   Cassia angusti folia: a, legume; b, leaflet, about natural size.

Fig. 180. - Cassia angusti-folia: a, legume; b, leaflet, about natural size.

Fig. 181.   Argel leaf.

Fig. 181. - Argel leaf.

Fig. 182.   Coriaria leaf.

Fig. 182. - Coriaria leaf.

Fig. 183.   Cracca (Tephrosia) leaflet.

Fig. 183. - Cracca (Tephrosia) leaflet.

thraglucosennin residue left after treatment with ether and acetone is a black, amorphous powder, which treated with alcoholic potash yields - (senna-)emodin and (senna-)chrysophanic acid. From an aqueous percolate Tschirch extracted cathartic acid and a crystalline body, C14H10O5, having similar reactions as sennanigrin, but concludes that the cathartic action (peristalsis) is due solely to the emodin and chrysophanic acid, both being oxymethylanthraquinones. Formerly senna was believed to contain: cathartic (cathartinic) acid, senna-picrin, sennacrol (resin causing griping), chrysophan and phaeretin (yellow coloring matters), sennite (cathartomannite), mucilage, ash 10-12 p. c.

Preparations. - 1. Fluidextractum Sennae. Fluidextract of Senna. (Syn., Fldext. Senn., Fluid Extract of Senna; Liquor Sennae Concen-tratus; Fr. Extrait fluide de Sene; Ger. Sennafluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sabal, page 95; menstruum: 33 p. c. alcohol, reserving first 80 Ml. (Cc.). Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)).

Preps.: 1. Syrwpus Sennae. Syrup of Senna. (Syn., Syr. Senn.;

Fr. Sirop de Sene; Ger. Sirupus Sennae, Sennasirup.) Manufacture: 25 p. c. Mix oil of coriander .5 Ml. (Cc.) with fluidextract of senna 25 Ml. (Cc.), add syrup q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.), mix thoroughly. Dose, 3ss-4 (2-15 Ml. (Cc.)). 2. Syrupus Sarsaparillae Compositus, 1.5 p. c. (fluidextract of senna).

2. Infusum Sennae Compositum. Compound Infusion of Senna. (Syn., Inf. Senn. Co., Black Draught; Br. Mistura Sennae Composita; Fr. Tisane de Sene compose; Ger. Wiener Trank, Sennaaufguss.)

Manufacture: 6 p. c. Macerate for half an hour senna 6 Gm., manna 12, fennel 2, in boiling water 80 Ml. (Cc.), strain, express, dissolve in the infusion magnesium sulphate 12 Gm., strain, pass through residue on strainer water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.); must be dispensed only when fresh. Dose, ℥j-3 (30-90 Ml. (Cc.)).

3. Pulvis Glycyrrhizae Compositus, 18 p. c.

a

Senna Senna 409

b.

Fig. 184.   Cassia obovata: a, legume; b, leaflet, about natural size.

Fig. 184. - Cassia obovata: a, legume; b, leaflet, about natural size.

Unoff. Preps.: Confection, 10 p. c (+ cassia fistula 16, tamarind 10, prune 7, fig 12, water 65, strain, add sugar 55.5, evaporate to 89.5, add senna 10,coriander oil .5), dose, 3 j-2 (4-8 Gm.)). Extract, dose,gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.). Infusum Sennae (Br.), 10 p. c + ginger .5. Aromatic Syrup, 12.5 p. c, +. Compound Syrup, 13.5 p. c, + Tinctura Sennae Composita (Br.), 20 p. c. Species Laxativae, St. Germain Tea, 40 p. c, + sambucus 25, fennel 12.5, anise 12.5, potassium bitartrate 10. Properties. - Cathartic, acts on nearly the entire intestinal tract (especially colon), increasing peristalsis and intestinal secretion, except biliary; produces in 4 to 6 hours copious yellow stools, with griping and flatulence; does not cause hypercatharsis nor constipation. Large dose vomits, purges, with severe tenesmus, but never poisons; the odor acts as a cathartic on very susceptible persons.

Uses. - Arabians used it in skin affections; now employed for habitual constipation, hemorrhoids, fissura ani, fevers. Its smell, taste, tendency to nauseate, injurious effects in hemorrhoids, intestinal hemorrhage, and inflammation, all lessen its popularity; its purgative action is increased by bitters, calumba, etc, while the griping and nausea are diminished by coriander, tamarind, manna, fennel, Epsom or Rochelle salt. If leaves be macerated long in water, or if the mass be pressed tightly, much acrid, resinous principle will be obtained, causing griping, hence should exhaust by rapid percolation.

Allied Plants: