Preparations. - 1. Trochisci Ammonii Chloridi. Troches of Ammonium Chloride. (Syn., Troch. Ammon. Chlor.; Fr. Tablettes (Pastilles) de Chlorure d'Ammonium (de Sel Ammoniac); Ger. Salmiakpastillen.)
Manufacture: Rub together until thoroughly mixed ammonium chloride 10 Gm., extract of glycyrrhiza 20 Gm., tragacanth 2 Gm., sugar 40 Gm., form mass, with syrup of tolu q. s., divide into 100 troches. Dose, 1-5 troches.
Unoff. Prey.: Mistura, 2.5 p. c, + pure extract of glycyrrhiza 2.5, water q. s. 100, dose, 3j-3 (4-12 Ml. (Cc.)).
Properties and Uses. - Stimulant, irritant, expectorant, acute and chronic bronchitis, catarrhal pneumonia, jaundice, hepatic torpor and engorgement, glandular enlargements, hemicrania, dysmenorrhoea, ovaralgia, sciatica, prostate enlargement, amenorrhoea, uterine tumors, stomach hemorrhage, diabetes, rheumatism, snake-bites, contusions, tumors, ulcers, leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, gangrene, chronic catarrh; in gargles, dentifrices, errhine powders; disagreeable taste may be disguised by elixir, syrup, or fluidextract of licorice.
Synergists: Expectorants, emetics, diaphoretics.
Ammonii Carbonas. Ammonium Carbonate, NH4HCO3,NH4NH2 CO2. - (Syn., Ammon. Carb., Ammoniae Sesquicarbonas, Carbonas Ammonicus, Volatile Salt, Sal Volatile (Siccum), Alkali Volatile; Fr. Sel volatile d'Angleterre, Alcali volatil concret, Carbonate d'Ammo-niaque; Ger. Ammonium carbonicum, Ammoniumcarbonat, Kohlen-saures Ammonium, Fluchtiges Laugensalz, Reines Hirschhornsalz.)
Manufacture: Heat to redness (sublime) 1 part ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac) + 2 calcium carbonate (chalk), or 4 parts each ammonium sulphate and chalk + 1 charcoal, passing vapors into leaden chambers to condense - 4NH4Cl + 2CaCO3 = NH4HCO3.NH4NH2CO2 + 2CaCl2 + NH3 + H2O; the ammonia is utilized by passing it into water or dilute sulphuric acid, and ammonia sulphate is used mostly on account of cheapness. This carbonate is not normal, (NH4)2CO3, but is a double salt, one molecule being acid or bi-ammonium carbonate, and one being ammonium carbamate (carbonate deprived of H2O); the latter dissolved in water soon becomes neutral ammonium carbonate - NH4NH2CO2 + H2O = (NH4)2CO3. If exposed to air, gradually loses ammonia and carbon dioxide, becoming an opaque white powder of acid or bi-ammonium carbonate, NH4HCO3. The salt may also be obtained by washing the powdered official carbonate with a little cold water, which dissolves mainly the carbamate, leaving the bicarbonate undissolved. It is in white, hard, translucent, striated masses, strong odor of ammonia, without empyreuma, sharp ammoniacal taste, soluble in water (4); decomposed by hot water eliminating carbon dioxide and ammonia, completely volatilized by prolonged boiling; alcohol dissolves the carbamate, leaving the acid carbonate; on exposure loses carbon dioxide and ammonia, becoming opaque and finally porous lumps or white powder; contains varying proportions of the mixed salts, and should yield 30-32 p. c. of ammonia gas. Tests: 1. When heated - volatilizes without charring, vapor being alkaline, and residue .05 p. c. 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) alkaline - effervesces with acids. Impurities: Heavy metals, chloride, sulphate, thiosulphate, empy-reumatic substances. Should be kept cool in well-closed containers, and when for medicinal purposes, use only the translucent portions. Dose, stimulant, expectorant, gr. 2-3 (.13-.2 Gm.); for fevers, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.), in solution.
Preparations. - 1. Liquor Ammonii Acetatis. Solution of Ammonium Acetate. (Syn., Liq. Ammon. Acet., Spirit of Mindererus; Fr. Acetate d'Ammoniaque liquide, Esprit de Mindererus; Ger. Liquor Ammonii acetici, Ammoniumacetatlosung.)
Manufacture: Add ammonium carbonate (in hard, translucent pieces, free from white, pulverulent bicarbonate) 5 Gm., gradually, to cold diluted acetic acid 100 Ml. (Cc), stir until dissolved. It is a clear, colorless aqueous liquid, free from empyreumatic odor, mildly saline, acidulous taste, acid reaction; volatile when heated; evaporate 20 Ml. (Cc), ignite residue - ash .003 Gm.; contains 7 p. c. of ammonium acetate, NH4C2H3O2, with small amounts of acetic and carbonic acids. Tests: 1. Heat with potassium hydroxide T. S. - ammonia evolved. 2. To 5 Ml. (Cc.) add sulphuric acid and alcohol, each 1 Ml. (Cc), boil - ethyl acetate formed, recognized by odor; must not be dispensed unless recently prepared. Dose, 3ij - (8-15 Ml. (Cc)). Prep.: 1. Liquor Ferri Ammonii Acetatis, 50 p. c
2. Elixir Ferri, Quininae et Strychninae Phosphatum, .9 p. c 3. Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, 3.4 p. c
Unoff. Preps.: Mistura Pectoralis, Stokes, 1.75 p. c, + fldext. of senega 3.5, fldext. of squill 3.5, camph. tinct. of opium 17.5, water 8.5, syrup of tolu q. s. 100, dose, 3 j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc)). Liquor Ammonii Citratis (Br.), 8.75 p. c, dose, 5ij-6 (8-24 Ml. (Cc)).
Properties and Uses. - Cardiac stimulant, expectorant, rubefacient, irritant poison; pneumonia, bronchitis, phthisis, hysteria, syncope typhus and typhoid fevers, scarlatina, measles, erysipelas, bites of venomous serpents, diabetes, headache, nervous spasms, faintness.
Incompatibles: Cardiac sedatives, acids, acid salts, lime water.
Ammonii Salicylas. Ammonium Salicylate, NH4C7H5O3. - (Syn., Ammon. Salicyl.; Fr. Salicylate d'Ammoniaque; Ger. Ammonium salicylicum, Ammoniumsalicylat, Salicylsaures Ammon.)
Manufacture: Dissolve salicylic acid (10) in 10 p. c. ammonia water (12), evaporate to dryness. It is in colorless, lustrous, monoclinic prisms or plates, or white, crystalline powder, odorless, saline, bitter, sweetish after-taste, permanent, soluble in water (1), alcohol (3), fuses with decomposition, emitting inflammable vapors and odor of phenol, finally volatilizes - ash .1 p. c; contains 98 p. c. of the pure salt. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 10) colorless, neutral, slightly acid; heated with potassium hydroxide T. S. - evolves ammonia; with few drops of ferric chloride T. S. - dark red, precipitate (if strong), violet-blue (if weak). 2. Concentrated aqueous solution + diluted hydrochloric or sulphuric acid - voluminous white precipitate. Impurities: Heavy metals, etc. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 2-10 (.13 - 6 Gm.).