Properties and Uses. - Antirheumatic, antipyretic, expectorant, germicide; febrile conditions, bronchitis, rheumatism, gout, etc.
Ammonii Iodidum. Ammonium Iodide, NH4I. - (Syn., Ammon. Iod., Ioduretum Ammonicum; Fr. Iodure d'Ammonium; Ger. Jod Ammonium, Ammonium (jodid) jodatum.)
Manufacture: Dissolve in boiling water ammonium sulphate (2), potassium iodide (2.5), stir well, cool, add alcohol (1) to insure separation of potassium sulphate, evaporate filtrate to dryness, stirring constantly - (NH4)2SO4 + 2KI = 2NH4I + K2SO4. It is in minute, colorless, cubical crystals, white granular powder, odorless, sharp saline taste, very hygroscopic, on exposure soon becoming yellow, yellowish-brown, from loss of ammonia and liberation of iodine, soluble in water (.6), boiling water (.5), alcohol (3.7), glycerin (1.5); contains 99 p. c. of the pure salt. Tests: 1. Heat strongly - evolves vapor of iodine, volatilizes without fusing, residue .1 p. c. 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral or slightly acid; heated with potassium hydroxide - evolves ammonia; + few drops of ferric chloride T. S. - liberates iodine, imparting violet color to chloroform when shaken with it. Impurities: Heavy metals, iron, barium, free iodine. Should be kept dark, in small, well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 2-15 (.13-1 Gm.), in water, syrup; ointment (5-10 p. a); used externally.
Properties and Uses. - Resolvent - resembles potassium iodide very much; secondary syphilis, chronic rheumatism, incipient phthisis, scrofula, enlarged tonsils, lepra, psoriasis, Tinea capitis, enlarged glands.
1. Ammonii Nitras. Ammonium Nitrate, NH4NO3. - Obtained by (1) neutralizing nitric acid with ammonia water or ammonium carbonate, filtering, evaporating - NH4HCO3,NH4NH2CO2 + 3HNO3 = 3NH4NO3 + H2O + 2CO2; (2) neutralizing gas-liquor with HNO3 instead of HC1; (3) double decomposition between ammonium sulphate and potassium nitrate. It is in colorless, hexagonal prisms, or long, flexible, thread-like needles, or fused masses, odorless, sharp, bitter taste, soluble in water (.5), alcohol (20), deliquescent, detonates, hence should be kept in well-stoppered bottles; contains as impurities chloride, sulphate. Properties and uses very similar to those of potassium nitrate, but occasions less cardiac depression; important as the source of nitrous oxide (gas), see page 66 . Dose, gr. 1-20 (.06-1.3 Gm.).
2. Ammonii Phosphas. Ammonium Phosphate, (NH4)2 HPO4, official 1880-1890. Obtained by adding strong solution of ammonia to diluted phosphoric acid until alkaline; evaporate, adding ammonia water occasionally to preserve alkalinity; dry crystals quickly. It is in transparent, colorless, monoclinic crystals, white crystalline powder, sp. gr. 1.678, odorless, cooling, saline taste, efflorescent, soluble in water (4), insoluble in alcohol, volatile. Gout, rheumatism, diabetes. Dose, gr. 10-20 (.6-1.3 Gm.), terdie.
3. Ammonii Sulphas. Ammonium Sulphate, (NH4)2SO4, official 1870-1890. Obtained from coal-gas liquor by mixing it with lime, distilling off ammonia, catching it in sulphuric acid; usually contains sulphocyanate, NH4CNS, etc.; a pure salt is prepared by neutralizing diluted sulphuric acid with ammonia water, crystallizing. It is in colorless, transparent, rhombic prisms, odorless, sharp, saline, bitterish taste, permanent, soluble in water (1.3), slightly in alcohol, decomposed by heat. Impurities: Iron, lead, chloride, sulphocyanate. Not used in medicine, but in the manufacture of ammonia water, ammonium chloride, ammonia alum, and sulphate of iron and ammonium.
4. Ammonii Hypophosphis. Ammonium Hypophosphite, NH4H2PO2. - Obtained by double decomposition between solutions of calcium hypophosphite and sodium carbonate. It is in colorless, hexagonal plates, granular powder, odorless, saline, bitter taste, soluble in water (1), alcohol (20). Dose, gr. 3-5 (.2-3 Gm.); syrup, 3.5 p. c, + dil. hypophosphorous acid .2, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)).