Manufacture: The most abundant sodium compound, found native everywhere, but, for general use, obtained from crystalline rock-salt, which is mined extensively, sea-water and brine of salt-wells, these natural solutions furnishing by evaporation the largest supply. It is in colorless, transparent, cubical crystals, white, crystalline powder, odorless, purely saline taste, slightly hygroscopic (due to magnesium chloride); soluble in water (2.8), boiling water (2.7), glycerin (10), slightly in alcohol; aqueous solution (1 in 10) neutral; contains, when dried to constant weight, 99 p. c. of pure salt. Tests: 1. When heated - decrepitates; at red heat - fuses; at white heat - slowly volatilizes and partly decomposed; produces intense yellow flame. 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) with silver nitrate T. S. - white, curdy precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid, readily soluble in ammonia water. Impurities: Heavy metals, calcium, magnesium, bromide, iodide. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, cathartic, 3 ij-4 (8-15 Gm.); emetic, ℥ss-l (15-30 Gm.), in warm water.

Preparation. - 1. Liquor Sodii Chloridi Physiologicus. Physiological Solution of Sodium Chloride. (Syn., Liq. Sod. Chlor. Physio., Physiological Salt Solution, Normal Salt Solution.)

Manufacture: Dissolve sodium chloride 8.5 Gm. in freshly distilled water q. s. 1000 Ml. (Cc), filter, sterilize, preferably in an autoclave, under steam pressure, at 115-120° C. (239-248° F.) for 15 minutes, or by boiling for 1 hour. Should not be used after it has been made 48 hours.

Properties and Uses. - Stomachic, tonic, anthelmintic, purgative, emetic, condiment, preservative; base of the sodium preparations; intermittent fever, haemoptysis, phthisis, scrofula, diphtheria, dyspepsia, cholera, worms (ascarides), diabetes, albuminuria, to prevent alcoholic intoxication, congestion of the brain, epilepsy, emetic for narcotics and poisons in stomach, nasal catarrh, ulcers, sore mouth, pruritus, insect-sting, toothache, swellings, bruises, rheumatism, salt-bath, stimulant, for headache, uterine pain, eczema, psoriasis.

Sodii Indigotindisulphonas. Sodium Indigotindisulphonate, C16H8-O2N2(SO3Na)2. - (Syn., Sod. Indigotin., Indigo Carmine, Ceruleinum; Fr. Indigo soluble, Indigodisulphonate de Sodium, Carmin d'indigo, Ceruleine; Ger. Indigosulfosaures Natrium.)

Manufacture: Add gradually, constantly stirring with glass rod, powdered indigo and ground glass each 1 Gm. to sulphuric acid 20 Ml. (Cc), heat 1 hour at 85° C. (185° F.), cool, add water, q. s. 1000 ML (Cc), filter from indigo-brown; mix filtered solutions and water each 50 Ml. (Cc), add sodium chloride 32 Gm., let stand 2 hours, filter, wash precipitate with brine 50 Ml. (Cc). This sodium salt of indigo-tindisulphonic acid is a blue powder, dark purple paste, which must be dried to constant weight before applying tests; sparingly soluble in water, yielding dark blue solution, almost insoluble in alcohol; when compressed acquires coppery lustre. Tests: 1. Add to aqueous solution (1 in 200) nitric acid, bromine water, or chlorine water - blue color discharged; similar result when warmed with sodium hydroxide and zinc dust, or with stannous chloride T. S. 2. Dissolve 1 Gm. in distilled water 200 Ml. (Cc), filter through counterbalanced filters, wash filters and residue with distilled water until washings cease to be blue - dry insoluble residue on filter 2 p. c. Impurities: Iron ferricyanide, iron ferrocyanide, starch, starch iodide.

Properties and Uses. - Volumetric estimate of nitrates, chlorine.

Sodii Carbonas Monohydratus. Monohydrated Sodium Carbonate, Na2CO3 + H2O. - (Syn., Sod. Carb. Monohyd.; Fr. Carbonate de Soude monohydrate; Ger. Einfachwasserhaltiges Natriumcarbonat.)

Manufacture: By crystallizing ordinary sodium carbonate above 35° C. (95° F.), having the advantage of being comparatively stable and non-efflorescent. It is a white, crystalline, granular powder, odorless, strongly alkaline taste; exposed to air absorbs some moisture, to warm, dry air above 50° C. (122° F.) effloresces, at 100° C. (212° F.)

- anhydrous; soluble in water (3), boiling water (1.8), glycerin (7), insoluble in alcohol; contains 99.5 p. c. of pure salt. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 10) strongly alkaline; effervesces with acids; produces intensely yellow flame .

Impurities: Heavy metals, etc. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1

Gm.), in powder or some bitter infusion.

Preparations. - 1. Liquor Sodae Chlorinate, 7 p. c. 2. Mitssa Ferri Carbonatis, 46 p. c. - 36 p. c. ferrous carbonate. 3. Supposiioria Glycerini, 8/10 gr. (.05 Gm.) or sodium stearate 3 1/2 gr. (.02 Gm.) - 6.5 p. c.

Unoff. Preps.: Elixir Formation, 3.6 p. c, + potassium carbonate 4.1, formic acid 22.5, +. Elixir Formatum Compositum, 2.3 p. c, + magnesium carbonate 2, strontium carbonate 2.5, lithium carbonate .8, quinine .77, formic acid 20, + .

Properties. - Antacid, irritant, diuretic. Similar to bicarbonate, not much used internally, owing to its corrosive and poisonous action (like sodium hydroxide).

Uses. - Gallstones, acidity of stomach or intestines, uric acid diathesis (gout), rheumatism, skin diseases, burns, scrofula, whooping-cough, liver congestion, vulvar pruritus, for making other sodium salts.

Poisoning: As for potassium hydroxide. Give fixed oils, acetic acid, vinegar, lemon juice, demulcents, relieve pain with opium or morphine.

Sodii Bicarbonas. Sodium Bicarbonate, NaHCO3. - (Syn., Sod. Bicarb., Natrium Carbonicum Acidulum, Bicarbonas Sodicus, Sodium Hydrocarbonate, Acid Sodium Carbonate; Fr. Bicarbonate de Soude, Sel digestif de Vichy; Ger. Natrium bicarbonicum, Natriumbicarbonat, Doppeltkohlensaures Natron.)

Manufacture: 1. Treat sodium carbonate (crystals or solution) with carbon dioxide - (Na2CO3 + 10H2O) + CO2 = 2NaHCO, + 9H2O; 2. Solvay's Ammonia-soda Process: Mix concentrated solution of sodium chloride with ammonia, and saturate with carbon dioxide under pressure - NaCl + NH3 + CO2 + H2O = NaHCO3 + NH4Cl; here ammonium chloride remains in solution and sodium bicarbonate is precipitated, but contaminated with ammonium salts which are difficult to remove. It is a white, opaque powder, odorless, cooling, mildly alkaline taste, permanent, slowly decomposes in moist air, soluble in water (10), insoluble in alcohol, aqueous solution (1 in 20) slightly alkaline, increasing on standing, agitation, heating; contains, when dried to constant weight, 99 p. c. of pure salt. Tests: 1. When heated - decomposes into normal sodium carbonate, water, carbon dioxide; at 100° C. (212° F.) - loses 36.5 p. c; at bright red heat-residue fuses; produces intense yellow flame; no odor of ammonia on heating in test-tube. 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) - clear, colorless, effervesces strongly with acids; heated above 15° C. (59° F.) - gradu-45