Properties and Uses. - Nervine, tonic, where system needs phosphorus. Nervous asthma, neurasthenia, deficient nutrition, Addison's disease, phosphaturia, goiter, convalescence; substitute for pilocarpus when latter objectionable.
Sodii Nitris. Sodium Nitrite, NaNO2. - (Syn., Sod. Nitris; Fr. Nitrite de Soude; Ger. Salpetrigsaures Natron.)
Manufacture: Heat together sodium nitrate, charcoal, and starch, wash out the nitrite with water; or, better, heat fused sodium nitrate (3 hours) with lead in thin sheets - 2NaNO3 + Pb2 = 2NaNO2 + 2PbO; lixiviate mass with water, treat solution with carbon dioxide (to remove trace of lead), crystallize filtrate. It is in white, nearly white, opaque, fused masses, sticks, colorless, transparent, hexagonal crystals, granular powder, odorless, mild saline taste, deliquescent, gradually oxidized to sodium nitrate, becoming unfit for use, soluble in water (1.5), more so in boiling water, sparingly in alcohol; aqueous solution (1 in 10) slightly alkaline; contains, when dried to constant weight, 95 p. c. of pure salt. Tests: 1. When heated - melts; at red heat - decomposes, yielding oxygen, nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide, sodium oxide; produces intensely yellow flame. 2. Mix 5 Ml. (Cc.) of aqueous solution (1 in 10) with potassium iodide T. S. and hydrochloric acid, each 5 drops - iodine liberated, nitrogen dioxide escapes with effervescence. Impurities: Heavy metals, etc. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 2-3 (.13-2 Gm.), ter die.
Preparation. - 1. Spiritus Mtheris Nitrosi.
Properties and uses. - Similar to nitroglycerin and amyl nitrite, hut is milder and more uniform; angina pectoris, asthma, dyspnoea, headache, hemicrania, epilepsy; dilates the vessels, lowers blood-pressure.
Sodii Phenolsulphonas. Sodium Phenolsulphonate, Na( NaC6H5O4S 2H2O. (Syn., Sod. Phenolsulph., Sodium Sulphoearbolate, Sodii Sulphocarbolas (Paraphenol-sulphonate); Fr. Sulphophenate de Soude; Ger. Phenolsulfosaures Natrium.)
Manufacture: Mix equal weights of phenol (crystals) and sulphuric acid, heat for (> hours on boiling water-bath (until forming clear solution with water), add water (10), also excess of barium carbonate, heat at 100° C. (212° F.) until acid neutralized, concentrate filtrate of barium phenolsulphonate, double decompose with sodium carbonate, concentrate filtrate, set aside to crystallize - (1) C6H5OH + H2SO4 = HSO3C6H4OH + H2O; (2) 2HSO3C6H4OH + BaCO3 = Ba(SO3C6H4(OH))2 + H2O + CO2;(3) Ba(SO3C6H4(OH))2 + Na2CO3 = 2NaSO3C6H4(OH) + BaCO3. It is in colorless, transparent, rhombic prisms, crystalline granules, odorless, cooling, saline, bitter taste, efflorescent, soluble in water (4.2), boiling water (.8), alcohol (140), boiling alcohol (13.5), glycerin (5); aqueous solution (1 in 10) neutral; contains 83.64-87.82 p. c. of anhydrous sodium para-phenolsulphonate, corresponding to 99 p. c. of crystallized salt. Tests: 1. Heat above 100° C. (212° F.) - loses water of crystallization, becoming white; at higher temperature - chars, emitting inflammable vapors of phenol odor, with residue of sodium sulphate; produces intensely yellow flame. 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 100) with ferric chloride T. S. - pale violet, but clear; with barium chloride T. S. original salt solution clear, but if salt ignited and residue dissolved in distilled water, + barium chloride T. S. - copious white precipitate. Impurities: Heavy metals, phenol. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 3-15 (.2-1 Gm.); mostly in injection, spray.
Properties and Uses. - Antiferment, phthisis, typhoid fever, eruptive fevers, scarlatina, fermentation, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, gangrene, diphtheria, thrush, vomiting in pregnancy.
Sodii Thiosulphas. Sodium Thiosulphate, Na2S2O3 + 5H2O. - (Syn., Sod. Thiosulph., Sodium Hyposulphite, Hyposulphis Sodicus; Fr. Hyposulphite de Soude, Sulphite sulfure de Soude; Ger. Natrium thiosulfuricum, Natriumthiosulfat, Natrium hyposulphurosum (sub-sulfurosum), Unterschwefligsaures Natron.)
Manufacture: By boiling solution sodium sulphite with sulphur - Na2SO3 + S = Na2S2O3, or boiling 6NaOH + S12 = Na2S2O3 + 2Na2S5 + 3H2O, or on larger scale by double decomposition of sodium carbonate with calcium thiosulphate - Na2CO3 + CaS2O3 = Na2S2O3 + CaCO3. This is not, as sometimes considered, a true hyposulphite (NaHSO2), which, however, can be made thus: 3NaHSO3 + Zn = NaHSO2 + Na2SO3 + ZnSO3 + H2O. It is in colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms, odorless, cooling, bitter taste, permanent below 33 °
C. (92° F.), efflorescent above that in dry air, slightly deliquescent in moist air, soluble in water (.5), insoluble in alcohol, rapidly decomposed at boiling; aqueous solution (1 in 10) neutral, faintly alkaline; contains 63.07-67.48 p. c. of anhydrous sodium thiosulphate, corresponding to 99 p. c. of crystallized salt. Tests: 1. Heat rapidly - melts; heat slowly until effloresced, then to 100° C. (212° F.) - undergoes partial decomposition, loses all water of crystallization; at red heat - decomposed, liberating sulphur, with residue of sodium sulphite and sulphate; produces intensely yellow flame. 2. Aqueous solution readily dissolves compounds of silver (bromide, chloride,iodide,oxide, etc.),and decolorizes solutions of iodine, or starch iodide; aqueous solution (1 in 10) 5 Ml. (Cc.) with a few drops of ferric chloride T. S. - dark violet color, rapidly disappearing upon agitation. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, calcium, sulphite, bisulphite. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.), also in baths, ointments. Allied Salts:
1. Sodii Nitras. Sodium Nitrate, Chile Saltpetre, NaNO3, official 1870-1910. - Obtained natively in Chile, Peru, etc., as a stratum (terra salitrosa) composed of various salts, from which the sodium nitrate is extracted by boiling water, crystallizing. It is in colorless, transparent rhombohedral crystals, odorless, cooling, saline, slightly bitter, hygroscopic, soluble in water (1.1), alcohol (100), at high heat evolves oxygen becoming nitrite, deflagrates with charcoal; contains 99 p. c. of pure salt. Impurities: Heavy metals, iodide. Refrigerant, diuretic, purgative; dysentery, epilepsy, angina pectoris, laryngitis, diarrhoea. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, purgative, during the day, 3 4-8 (15-30 Gm.); for other conditions, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).