8. Pista'Cia Lentis'Cus, Mastiche, Mastic

Pista'Cia Lentis'Cus, Mastiche, Mastic. The concrete resinous exudation, official 1840-1910; Mediterranean Basin (Spain, France, Italy, Morocco, Greece, etc.), Island of Scio, Grecian Archipelago, etc. Small tree, 3-4.6 M. (10-15°) high, branched, bark smooth,

Fig. 246.   Pistacia Lentiscus: a, staminate branch; b, pistillate branch; c, fruit branch, 1/4 nat. size; also flowers, pistil, pollen, fruit, and embryo, enlarged.

Fig. 246. - Pistacia Lentiscus: a, staminate branch; b, pistillate branch; c, fruit branch, 1/4 nat. size; also flowers, pistil, pollen, fruit, and embryo, enlarged.

brownish-gray; leaves paripinnate; leaflets 3-5 pairs, lanceolate, entire, mucronate, sessile; flowers small, dioecious; fruit drupe, 6 Mm. (1/4) thick, orange-red. Resin (mastic), subglobular, lenticular tears, 3 Mm. (1/8") long, pale yellow, greenish-yellow, transparent, glass-like lustre, surface often dusty, brittle, plastic when chewed; odor slight balsamic; taste mild, terebinthinate; loses plasticity and deepens in color with age. Secretes in long ducts in the bark from which it is obtained by making longitudinal or transverse incisions in stem and branches, whereupon it slowly exudes, becoming within 2-3 weeks sufficiently hard to be collected carefully in soft-lined baskets. There are two varieties: 1, Separate tears (best, the once official kind); 2, Agglutinated tears (allowed to run to the ground, often collected with sand, bark, etc. - inferior); yield 10 pounds (4.5 Kg.), per plant; solvents: chloroform, ether; alcohol dissolves 90 p. c; contains volatile oil 1-2 p. c., alpha-resin (mastic(h)ic acid) 90 p. c, beta-resin (masticin), soluble in ether, oil of turpentine, bitter principle. Stimulant, diuretic, protective (solution); bronchial, vesical catarrhs, toothache (saturated ethereal solution in cavity allowed to harden), masticatory {preserves teeth), fumigation; in alcohol, oil of turpentine as varnish for maps, etc.; seldom used internally.

9. Euon'Ymus Atropurpu'Reus, Wahoo

Euon'Ymus Atropurpu'Reus, Wahoo. Celastraceae. The dried bark of the root, official 1860-1910; United States, east of the Mississippi. Ornamental shrub, 1.5-46 M. (5-15°) high; wood white; leaves oval, serrate; flowers dark purple cymes; fruit smooth, 4-lobed crimson capsule. Bark, curved pieces, 3-7 Cm. (1 1/2-3') long, .5-5 Mm. (1/50-1/5') thick, ashy-gray, patches of soft cork; inner surface whitish; odor distinct; taste sweetish, bitter, acrid; stem-bark yields greenish-gray powder (chlorophyll); solvents: hot water, diluted alcohol; contains euonymin, volatile oil 1.3 p. c, resins, atropurpurin, fixed oil, bitter extractive. Laxative, diuretic, tonic, antiperiodic, expectorant; constipation, torpid liver, dropsy, pulmonary affections;

Stillingia Stillingia 520Fig. 247.   Euonymus alropurpureus: a, outer surface of root bark; b, inner surface of root bark, nat. size.

Fig. 247. - Euonymus alropurpureus: a, outer surface of root-bark; b, inner surface of root-bark, nat. size.

overdoses - gastro-intestinal irritant. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.); decoction, 5 p. c, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)); extract (80 p. c. alcohol), gr. 1-6 (.06-.4 Gm.); fluidextract (80 p. c. alcohol), 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)); infusion, euonymin (Eclectic; root-bark - brownish; stem-bark - greenish), gr. 1/2-3-6 (.03-.2-.4 Gm.). E. america'nus, Strawberry Bush, low or trailing bush, with crimson capsules. E. europos'us, common Spindletree of hedges, 2.5-6 M. (8-20°) high, cultivated, flowers greenish-yellow, capsules pale red, arillus orange-red; emetic, purgative. Both poisonous to cattle.