Stramonium, Linne, Tatula, Linne.

The dried leaves, with not more than 10 p. c. of stems, foreign matter, containing .25 p. c. of alkaloids.

Habitat. Asia; naturalized universally (Europe, England, N. America, etc.).

Syn. Stramon., Jamestown Weed, Jimson Weed, Thorn-apple, Devil's (Mad) Apple, Stink-weed, Stink-wort, Devil's Trumpet, Fire-weed, Jamestown Lily, Apple of Peru; Stramonii Folia; Fr. Stramoine, Pomme Epineuse, Feuilles de Stramoine; Ger. Stechapfel, Dornapfel, Stechapfelblatter.

Da-tu'ra. L. fr. Hind, dhatura, a plant, or an alteration of Ar. tatorah - i. e., their name for the plant.

Stra-mo'ni-um. L. contr. of Gr.

Stramonium Stramonium 723

used by Dioscorides for this and for Atropa Belladonna.

Tat'u-la. L. an alteration fr. datula - i. e., name given the plant by Turks and Persians.

Jimson-weed. For Jamestown, Va., where first found growing on ship rubbish.

Plants. - Coarse annual bushy herbs, rank, noxious odor; stems cylindrical, flattened, longitudinally wrinkled, occasionally 1-more-furrowed, succulent, greenish, purplish-brown, nearly solid, 1-1.5 M. (3-5°) high, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-l 3/5') thick, 2-3-branched above ground; root tapering, white; flowers June-Sept., calyx tubular, green, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') long, 5's, corolla white, purplish, tubular, funnel-shaped, 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, 5 Cm. (2') broad, 5's; fruit capsule, 5 Cm. (2') long, ovate, obtusely quadrangular, covered with unequal, sharp, rigid spines, 4-celled, dehiscing half-way down into 4 segments; ovary 2-carpelled, 2-celled; seeds numerous, brownish-black, angled, flattened, 4 Mm. (1/6') long. Leaves, inequilaterally ovate, one side of base 3-12 Mm. (1/8-1/2) below the other, 5-30 Cm. (2-12') long, 4-15 Cm. (1 3/5 - 6') broad, acute, acuminate, sinuate-toothed, angled, teeth few, solanaceae acute, acuminate with rounded sinuses, frequently with numerous circular perforations sometimes filled with cork; dark green, sparsely hairy, especially upon the veins, under surface light green; odor distinct, heavy, narcotic; taste unpleasant, nauseous; usually much wrinkled, loose or matted together. Powder, brownish-green; microscopically - upon clearing fragments with hydrated chloral

T. S. have numerous stomata, with 3 neighboring cells, small chloroplastids, crystals or rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate, few non-glandular hairs, few glandular hairs with 2-4-celled glandular heads, tracheae; stem frag-

Fig. 359.   Datura Stramonium: flowering branch.

Fig. 359. - Datura Stramonium: flowering branch.

Stramonium Stramonium 725Fig. 360.   Datura Stramonium: a, fruit; 6, stramonium seed and section, magnified 3 diam.

Fig. 360. - Datura Stramonium: a, fruit; 6, stramonium seed and section, magnified 3 diam.

ments show spiral tracheae, wood parenchyma, long collenchymatous cells, parenchyma, few wood-fibres, no bast-fibres. Solvents: alcohol (75 p. c); diluted alcohol; hot water partially. Dose, gr.1-5 (.06-3 Gm.).

Adulterations. - Leaves of allied species (usually smaller), belladonna, French cultivated, and Xan'thium Struma'num.

Commercial. - Plants were known possibly to the ancients, but not described until the 16th century (Gerarde), nor introduced into medicine before 1672 (Storck). They infest fields, roadsides, waste places, near houses (never in mountains or woods), and grow well with us, especially in Michigan and other Western States, all parts being medicinal. Gypsies brought leaves and seeds to Europe from Asia in the middle ages, and used the smoke therefrom to intoxicate their dupes. Leaves should be gathered while flowering, by pulling up entire plant, then quickly removing and drying, by which they often become broken or cut into pieces.

Constituents. - Daturine .2-4 p. c, volatile oil (containing daturic acid, C17H34O2), chlorophyll, mucilage, albumin, potassium nitrate, ash 17-20 p. c.

Daturine. - An alkaloid combined with malic (daturic) acid, and consisting of hyoscyamine, atropine (the former usually predominating), and probably little scopolamine (hyoscine); forms salts (hydrochloride, sulphate, etc.). Dose, gr. 1/120-1/60 (.0005-001 Gm.).

Preparations. - 1. Extractum Stramonii. Extract of Stramonium. (Syn., Ext. Stramon.; Fr. Extrait de Feuilles de Stramoine; Ger. Stechapfelblatterextrakt.)

Manufacture: Pilular, macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with 75 p. c. alcohol until exhausted, reclaim alcohol, evaporate residue at 70° C. (158° F.) to pilular consistence, frequently stirring, mix thoroughly; after assay add enough glucose for extract to contain 1 p. c. of total alkaloids, mix thoroughly. Powdered, macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol, reserve first 100 Ml. (Cc.) and continue until exhausted (100 Ml. (Cc.)); reclaim alcohol from second percolate until residue in still is 10 Ml. (Cc), to which add first reserve and distil until residue of syrupy consistence; transfer to a dish, rinse still with little warm alcohol, which add to dish and evaporate at 70° C. (150° F.) to soft extract, frequently stirring, add dried starch 5 Gm., heat, with stirring, until nearly dry, thoroughly incorporate magnesium oxide 2 Gm., expose to current of warm air until dry, pulverize; after assay add enough dried starch for extract to contain 1 p. c. of total alkaloids, mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; contains .9-1.1 - 1 p. c. of the alkaloids; 1 Gm. represents 4 Gm. of the drug. Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 1/6-1/2 (.01-.03 Gm.).

Prep.: 1. Unguentum Stramonii. Stramonium Ointment. (Syn., Ung. Stramon.; Fr. Pommade de Stramoine; Ger. Stechapfel-salbe.) Manufacture: 10 p. c. Triturate until smooth mixture pilular extract of stramonium 10 Gm., diluted alcohol 5 Ml. (Cc), incorporate hydrous wool fat 20 Gm., add benzoinated lard 65 Gm., mix thoroughly.

2. Tinctura Stramonii. Tincture of Stramonium. (Syn., Tr. Stramon.; Br. Tinctura Stramonii, Tincture of Stramonium; Fr. Teinture de Stramoine; Ger. Stechapfeltinktur.)

Manufacture: 10 p. c. Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101; menstruum: diluted alcohol - percolate 95 Ml. (Cc), assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .0225-.0275 - .025 Gm. of-total alkaloids. Dose, ev-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Preps.: Leaves: Fluidextract (alcohol 65 p. c), dose, ej-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)). Plaster. Juice (Succus Stramonii). Cigarettes. Root: Fomentation.

Properties. - Narcotic, anodyne, antispasmodic, diuretic, mydriatic. Internally very similar but stronger than belladonna; weaker externally. Large doses produce dry throat, cardiac irregularity, high fever with delirium, increase sexual desire, possibly laughing and hallucinations (like in cholera, alcoholism), dizziness, fainting, red eruptions, dilated pupils, insomnia, black objects appear green; pneumogastric becomes paralyzed, thus stopping the inhibitory action, hence whole system paralyzed finally by over-stimulation, including the heart, then delirium, stupor, convulsions, death by asphyxia; in case of recovery remember nothing that has occurred; does not affect some animals, as caterpillar tribe, goats, etc.

Uses. - Insanity, mania, melancholia, epilepsy, nervous asthma (gr. 15 (1 Gm.) of leaves smoked with tobacco or sage at each paroxysm), whooping-cough, dysmenorrhoea, retention of urine, hepatic colic, laryngeal cough, chorea. Ointment in ulcers, hemorrhoids, fissures, skin diseases, poison-ivy eruptions, rheumatism bruises, sprains. In the absence of belladonna may use stramonium with good results.

Poisoning, Incompatibles, Synergists: Same as for belladonna.

Allied Plants: