Some of the unofficial salts, such as nitrate, etc., are used for red fire.

Aliii = 27.1.

The metal aluminum (L. alumen, alumin(is) + um, alum, fr. alo, to nourish, as confounded with iron sulphate) is the typical representative of the earths and the only one having any medicinal use, the other members being of only scientific interest. It occurs largely in combination with silicic acid in silicated rocks, clays, forming the greater bulk of our earth - basalt, feldspar, granite, hornblend, mica, slate - clay results from decomposition of these. The valuable minerals corundum, emery, ruby, and sapphire, are crystals of aluminum oxide colored with other substances. The metal is obtained by decomposing A12C16 with metallic sodium - A12C16 + 6Na = 2A1 + 6NaCl. It is a very light, silvery-white metal, sp. gr. 2.6, capable of taking a high polish; owing to these properties the metal is used extensively.

Tests for Aluminum Salts. - 1. Potassium or sodium hydroxide gives white gelatinous precipitate, soluble in excess. 2. Ammonium hydroxide gives a like precipitate, but insoluble in excess. 3. Alkaline carbonates precipitate also the white hydroxide with liberation of C02. 4. Ammonium sulphide precipitates hydroxide, liberating H2S. 5. Sodium phosphate precipitates aluminum phosphate, soluble in acids.

Alumen. Alum, AlNH4(SO4)2 + 12H2O or A1K(SO4)2 + 12H2O. - (Syn., Aluminii et Ammonii Sulphas, Ammonium Alum; Fr. Alun ammoniacal; Ger. Ammoniak Alaun; Aluminii et Potassii Sulphas, Potassium Alum; Fr. Sulfate d'Alumine et de Potasse; Ger. Alaun, Kali-Alaun.)

Manufacture: Decompose aluminum silicate (alum-clay) with sulphuric acid, forming aluminum sulphate, and to this in solution add either ammonium sulphate or potassium sulphate, when, on evaporation, ammonium alum or potassium alum crystallizes. Both occur in large colorless crystals, crystalline fragments, white powder; odorless; sweetish, strongly astringent taste; ammonium alum is less soluble in water, and when strongly heated ammonium sulphate volatilizes; aqueous solution + potassium hydroxide T. S. - precipitate, soluble in excess, ammonia being evolved; incinerate - ash .5 p. c; potassium alum is soluble in water (7.2), boiling water (.3), freely in glycerin, insoluble in alcohol; gives violet flame; saturated solution + sodium bitartrate T. S. - white crystalline precipitate; aqueous solution (1 in 20) + potassium hydroxide T. S. - precipitate, soluble in excess, but no ammonia evolved. Tests: 1. Aqueous solutions (1 in 20) - acid; fuses, and at 200° C. (392° F.) loses all water of crystallization. 2. Aqueous solution + ammonia water - white gelatinous precipitate almost insoluble in excess. 3. With barium chloride T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid; contains 99.5 p. c. of pure salt, and the label of container must indicate whether ammonium or potassium alum. Impurities.: Heavy metals, iron, arsenic. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.), with sugar, syrup, etc.; emetic, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.).

Preparations. - 1. Alumen Exsiccatum. Exsiccated Alum, A1NH4 (SO4)2 or A1K(SO4)2. - (Syn., Alum, Exsic, Alumen Ustum, Dried Alum, Burnt Alum; Fr. Alun calcine - desseche - brule; Ger. Alumen ustum, Gebrannter Alaun.)

Manufacture: Heat alum (in thin layer) 100 Gm. on sand-bath until it liquefies, then continue heat, with constant stirring, until porous mass weighs 55 Gm.; cool, powder. It is a white, granular powder; odorless; sweetish, astringent taste, attracting moisture on exposure, soluble in water (20), boiling water (1.5), insoluble in alcohol; dried in air-bath - loss 10 p. c.; contains 96.5 p. c. of pure anhydrous salt, and the label of the container should indicate whether from ammonium or potassium alum. Tests and Impurities: same as for alumen. Should be kept in well-closed containers and not dispensed if containing more than 10 p. c. of moisture.

2. Alumini Hydroxidum. Aluminum Hydroxide, Al(OH)3. - (Syn., Alum. Hydrox., Alumini Hydras, Hydrated Alumina; Fr. Hydrate d'Alumine; Ger. Thonerdehydrat, Argilla (Pura) Hydrata.)

Manufacture: Dissolve alum 10 Gm., monohydrated sodium carbonate 4.5 Gm., each separately in water 100 Ml. (Cc), filter, heat to boiling, add alum solution to sodium, stirring constantly, wash precipitate with hot water, drain, dry, powder - 3Na2CO3 + 2A1NH4(SO4)2 + 3H2O = 3Na2SO4+ (NH4)2SO4 + 2A1(OH)3 + 3CO2. It is a white, bulky, amorphous powder, odorless, tasteless, permanent, insoluble in water, alcohol, soluble in hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, fixed alkali hydroxides. Tests: 1. Solution in hydrochloric or sulphuric acid + potassium hydroxide T. S. - white gelatinous precipitate, soluble in excess and reprecipitated by excess of ammonium chloride. 2. Heated to redness - loses 34 p. c. of weight; consists principally of pure salt. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, alkali salts. Dose, gr. 3-6 (.2-4

Gm.). Unoff. Preps.: Liquor Alumini Acetico-Tartratis - ammonium alum 75 p. c, + monohydrated sodium carbonate 30; dissolve each in water 1000, mix, dissolve magma in glacial acetic acid 15 + tartaric acid

13.5 with heat, evaporate to 100. Glycerinum Aluminis (Br.), 15 p. c. Properties and Uses. - Astringent, irritant, emetic, purgative; hemorrhage, serous diarrhoea, colliquative sweats, menorrhagia, haema-turia, gastric intestinal catarrh, dysentery, diabetes, bronchitis, whooping-cough, lead colic, croup, narcotic poisoning, intermittent fever, ophthalmia, ecchymoses, sore throat, aphonia, ingrowing toe-nails, chilblains, ulcers, burns, relaxed gums, uvula, pharynx, vagina, anus, gonorrhoea, gleet, leucorrhoea, toothache. Dried Alum - astringent, stimulant, escharotic, more powerful than the preceding; fungous granulations, ulcers, insufflation. Both are applied locally in powder, lotion, injection, sprays, gargles (3-5 p. c). Aluminum Hydroxide - resembles medicinally bismuth oxide and magnesium oxide; feebly astringent, desiccant powder, antacid; used externally on skin in inflammations, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, intertrigo, superficial burns.

Incompatibles: Alkalies, lime, lead, mercury, iron salts, tartrates, tannin.

Allied Salts:

1. Alumini Sulphas. Aluminum Sulphate, A12(SO4)3 + 16H2O, official 1860-1910. - Obtained by dissolving freshly precipitated aluminum hydroxide in diluted sulphuric acid, crystallizing or evaporating to dryness. It is a white crystalline powder, shining plates or crystalline fragments, odorless, sweetish, astringent taste, permanent, soluble in water (1), insoluble in alcohol, heated to 200° C. (392° F.) loses water of crystallization (45.7 p. c.); contains 99.5 p. c. of pure salt. Disinfectant, deodorant, antiseptic; leucorrhoea, chronic dysentery, ulcers, cancer, naevi, polypi, fetid discharges, enlarged tonsils, nasal catarrh, diseases of os uteri, scrofulous sores; injection (50 p. c.) is of value in preserving subjects for dissection, but less so than zinc chloride. Not used internally. Liquor Alumini Acetatis, 8.5 Gm., lead acetate 15 Gm.; dissolve each in water 50, mix, wash magma. Liquor Alumini Subacetatis, 30 Gm.; dissolve in water 90, add precipitated calcium carbonate 13.8, acetic acid 30, both in portions, after several days wash magma.

2. Alumini Chloridum, Aluminum Chloride, A1C13 + 6H2O. - Obtained by passing chlorine over a mixture of A12O3 and carbon at red heat. It is a white, yellowish-white, deliquescent crystalline powder, nearly odorless, sweetish, astringent taste, soluble in water (.5), alcohol (5), glycerin; contains salt corresponding to 20.5 p. c. of A12O3. Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-6 Gm.). Disinfectant; solution of 1 part dissolved in water and mixed with alum 2 parts dissolved in water (filtering from precipitate of calcium sulphate) is valuable. Aluminum Gallate and Aluminum Tannate - good astringents in ozaena.

3. Kaolinum, Kaolin, Fullers Earth, H2Al2Si2O3 + H2O, official 1900-1910. - This native aluminum silicate, consisting chiefly of pure silicate, powdered and freed from gritty particles by elutriation, is found in large deposits in the earth, being the product of the weathering action of carbon dioxide and water on feldspar minerals (potassium aluminum silicate, KAlSi3O8), in which the potassium silicate formed is removed by rain-water, absorbed by the soil, and in turn by plants, leaving behind insoluble kaolin. It is a soft, whitish powder, lumps, earthy or clay-like taste, insoluble in water, diluted acids, alkali hydroxides. Cataplasm of Kaolin (Cataplasma Kaolini, U. S. P. 1900), made by heating for 1 hour at 100° C. (212° F.) powdered kaolin 577 Gm., occasionally stirring, mixing with boric acid 45 Gm., glycerin 375 Gm., thymol .5 Gm. dissolved in methyl salicylate 2 Gm., oil of peppermint .5 Gm. - rubbing to a homogeneous mass; resembles soft putty. Drying agent, emollient; to clarify, decolorize vegetable and animal oils (wine, beer, honey, syrups), dusting powder on irritated surfaces, sores, excipient for silver nitrate, potassium permanganate, etc.; Cataplasm - counter-irritant, exosmotic, antiseptic, due to the hygroscopic power of glycerin; induces superficial hyperaemia, relieving deep-seated congestion, pain (pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis, peritonitis, sprains, boils, periostitis, mastitis, orchitis, etc.), replacing flaxseed and mustard poultices, liniments, antiphlogistine, etc., and should be applied freely and as hot as can be borne, being heated by placing container in boiling water; impaired by exposure.