Siii = 32.

The element sulphur (AS, swefel, fr. Skt. culva, copper, + on, enemy to, or L. sal. salt, + Gr.

Sulphur 877

fire, its combustible quality - brimstone, has same meaning, brynstone, burnstone) is found free in volcanic districts, as of Sicily, and universally in combination as sulphates, sulphides, etc. We have several official forms.

Sulphur Sublimatum. Sublimed Sulphur. - (Syn., Sulphur Sublim., Flowers of Sulphur, Flores Sulphuris, Brimstone; Fr. Soufre (sublime), Fleurs (Creme) de Soufre; Ger. Sublimieter Schwefel, Schwefelbliite.) Manufacture: It is prepared by subliming the crude sulphur and passing the vapors into large condensing chambers, thus leaving behind all earthly impurities save arsenic, which, when present, passes over as arsenic sulphide, also by oxidization during sublimation may have formed sulphurous and sulphuric acids, all of which must be removed. It is a fine, yellow powder, slight, characteristic odor, faintly acid taste, practically insoluble in water, nearly so in alcohol, slightly soluble in ether, soluble or partially soluble in carbon disulphide, chloroform, olive oil; contains, when dried to constant weight, 99.5 p. c. of pure sulphur. Tests: 1. Heated to 115° C. (240° F.) - fuses to yellow, mobile fluid, which becomes dark and viscid upon further heating. 2. Burns in the air to sulphur dioxide with characteristic odor; volatilize or ignite - residue .5 p. c. Dose, gr. 10-60 (.6-4 Gm.). Preparations. - 1. Sulphur Lotum. Washed Sulphur. (Syn., Sulphur Lot.; Fr. Soufre lave; Ger. Sulfur depuratum, Gereinigter Schwefel (blumen), Flores Sulfuris Loti.)

Manufacture: Pass sublimed sulphur 100 Gm. through a No. 30 sieve, mix in a closed vessel with water 100 Ml. (Cc), + ammonia water 10 Ml. (Cc), set aside for 3 days, agitating occasionally, add water 100 Ml. (Cc), wash on strainer with water until no blue to red litmus paper, drain, press, dry rapidly at moderate heat, pass through No. 30 sieve. This removes acid (sulphuric) impurities and arsenic; - H2SO4 + As2S3 + 8NH4OH = (NH4)2SO4 + (NH4)3AsO3 + (NH4)3-AsS3 + 5H2O. It is a fine, yellow powder, odorless, tasteless, responding to solubility and identity tests of sublimed sulphur; contains, when dried to constant weight, 99.5 p. c of pure sulphur. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 10-60 (.6-4 Gm.). Prep.: 1. Pulvis Glycyrrhizoe Compositus, 8 p. c 2. Sulphur Proecipitatum. Precipitated Sulphur. (Syn., Sulphur Prsec, Lac Sulphuris, Milk of Sulphur, Magisterium Sulphuris; Fr. Soufre precipite, Magistere (Lait) de Soufre; Ger. Gefallter Schwefel, Schwefelmilch.)

Manufacture: Slake calcium oxide 50 Gm., mix with water 500 Ml. (Cc), add sublimed sulphur 100 Gm., previously sifted, mix thoroughly, add water 1000 Ml. (Cc), boil for 1 hour, agitating frequently, and replacing evaporated water, let cool and clear by subsidence, add gradually to clear filtrate, constantly stirring, hydrochloric acid previously diluted with equal vol. of water until liquid nearly neutral, but alkaline and yellow, wash precipitate on strainer until washings are neutral and give no precipitate with ammonium oxalate T. S., dry rapidly.

(1)

3Ca(OH)2

+

Sl2

=

2CaS5

+

CaS2O3

+

3H2O.

hydroxide

polysulphide

hyposulphite.

(2) 2CaS5 + CaS2O3 + 6HCl = 3CaCl2 + 3H2O + S12, or

(3) CaS5 + 2CaS2O3 + 6HC1 = S6 + 2H2O + H2S + 2SO2 + 3CaCl2. It is a fine (finer than sublimed sulphur), amorphous powder, pale yellow, neutral, odorless, tasteless, responding to solubility and identity tests of sublimed sulphur, but more soluble in carbon disulphide; residue -.3 p. c; contains, when dried to constant weight, 99.5 p. c. of pure sulphur. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 10-60 (.6-4 Gm.).

3. Unguentum Sulphuris. Sulphur Ointment. (Syn., Ung. Sulphur.; Fr. Pommade soufree, Pomatum Sulfuratum; Ger. Unguentum Sulfuratum simplex, Schwefelsalbe.)

Manufacture: 15 p. c. Rub until thoroughly mixed sublimed sulphur 15 Gm. with benzoinated lard 85 Gm., gradually added.

Unoff. Preps.: Confectio Sulphuris (Br.), 45 p. c, dose, 3j_2 (4-8 Gm.). Trochiscus Sulphuris (Br.), each contains precipitated sulphur gr. 5 (.3 Gm.). Trochisci Sulphuris et Potassii Bitartratis: washed sulphur 30 Gm., potassium bitartrate 6, sugar 60, tragacanth 4, oil of orange .5; water q. s. 100 troches. Unguentum Sulphuris Alkalinum 20 p. c, + potassium carbonate 10, water 5, benzoinated lard 65. Unguentum Sulphuris Compositum, 15 p. c, + precipitated calcium carbonate 10, oil of cade 15, soft soap 30, lard 30. Petroxolinum Sulphuratum, 3 p. c, + linseed oil 37, oleic acid 30, liquid petroxolin q. s. 100. Petroxolinum Sulphuratum Compositum, 10 p. c, +.

Properties. - Alterative, laxative, diaphoretic, resolvent, antiparasitic, stimulant. Much of it passes out of the system unchanged, a small part is converted into sulphides and hydrogen sulphide, this latter being excreted by the breath and skin, gives patients a disagreeable odor, and blackens all silver wearing effects; it increases peristalsis, making movements softer and more frequent. Sulphides after entering the blood are excreted in the urine as sulphates.

Uses. - Constipation, hemorrhoids, pregnancy, anal fissure, stricture or prolapsus, lead-poisoning, chronic rheumatism, gout, bronchitis, asthma. Externally - scabies, diphtheria, sciatica, psoriasis, eczema, acne, sycosis, croup. The washed and precipitated forms are preferable for internal use, as they contain no arsenic; the latter is best for ointment, owing to its finer division.

Allied Products:

1. Sulphuris Iodidum. Sulphur Iodide, S2I2, official 1820-1910.- Obtained by triturating thoroughly together washed sulphur 20 Gm. iodine 80 Gm., heating mixture on water-bath at 60° C. (140° F.) until combined (uniform dark color), increasing heat until fused, pouring upon a cold surface. It is a subiodide (disulphide) occurring in brittle masses, grayish-black, metallic lustre, crystalline fracture, iodine odor, acrid taste, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, carbon disulphide, ether, glycerin (60) ; solution of potassium iodide dissolves out the iodine, moderate heat dissipates while high heat leaves slight residue. Stimulant, caustic; substitute for iodine, acne, eczema, tinea capitis, lupus, lepra; ointment, 4 p. c.

Acidum Sulphuricum. Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4. - (Syn., Acid. Sulphuric, Oil of Vitriol, Vitriolic Acid; Fr. Acide sulfurique, Huile de Vitriol; Ger. Vitriolol, Schwefelsaure.) A liquid containing 93-95 p. c. of H2SO4.

Manufacture: It is made by burning sulphur or pyrites, and oxidizing the SO2 thus obtained by HNO3, then passing this sulphuric oxide into steam, whereby sulphuric acid condenses in leaden chambers arranged for the purpose; from these it is drawn off and evaporated to the proper strength. In actual practice the SO2 is passed over fumes of NO2 arising from the decomposition of KNO3 or NaNO3 + H2SO4 in the presence of an abundant supply of air. The sulphurous oxide, SO2, will not take up O to become sulphuric oxide, SO3, from the air alone, hence this indirect method has to be used; the nitric acid is deoxidized into nitric oxide, and this unites with O of air to form nitric peroxide, while this again supplies fresh O to the sulphurous acid:

(1) S2 + O4 = 2SO2. (2) SO2 + H2O = H2SO3. (3) 2NO + O2 = 2NO2. (4) H2SO3 + NO2 = H2SO4 + NO. (5) 3H2SO3 + 2HNO3 = 3H2SO4 + H2O + 2NO. (6) SO2 + O + H2O = H2SO4.

In this process five things are evidently necessary: sulphur, nitre (HNO3), air, watery vapor, heat. It is a colorless, odorless, oily liquid, very caustic, corrosive, strongly acid reaction, even when highly diluted; sp. gr. 1.83, miscible with water or alcohol with evolution of heat; must be added with caution to diluents, heated on platinum foil vaporizes with dense fumes; chars cane-sugar, wood, many organic substances. Tests: 1. Upon 3 Ml. (Cc.) pour carefully a layer of ferrous sulphate T. S., cool - zone of contact not brown, reddish-brown (abs. of nitric, nitrous acids). 2. Mixed with alcohol (4-5) - no precipitate within an hour (abs. of lead). Impurities: Heavy metals, lead, arsenic, hydrochloric, nitric, nitrous, sulphurous acids, non-volatile substances. Should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, eij-5 (.13-.3 Ml. (Cc.)), well diluted.

Preparations. - 1. Acidum Sulphuricum Dilutum. Diluted Sulphuric Acid. (Syn., Acid. Sulph. Oil.; Fr. Acide sulfurique dilue; Ger. Verdiinnte Schwefelsaure.)

Manufacture: Add gradually, constantly stirring, sulphuric acid 50 Gm. to distilled water 420 Gm., cool; contains 9.5-10.5 p. c. of H2SO4. It is a colorless, odorless liquid, strongly acid taste and reaction; sp. gr. 1.067. Tests: 1. With barium chloride T. S. - white precipitate insoluble in hydrochloric acid; with silver nitrate T. S. - not immediately affected (abs. of hydrochloric acid). 2. Evaporate 25 Ml. (Cc), ignite residue - final residue .0015 (abs. of non-volatile 43 substances). 3. 10 Ml. (Cc.) does not discharge at once the color of .1 Ml. (Cc.) of N/10 potassium permanganate V. S. (abs. of sulphurous, nitrous acids). Impurities: Same as for strong acid. Dose, ev-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)), well diluted.

2. Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum. Aromatic Sulphuric Acid. (Syn., Acid. Sulph. Arom., Elixir of Vitriol, Tinctura Aromatica Acida; Fr. Elixir vitriolique, Teinture (alcoole) aromatique sulfurique; Ger. Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti, Saure Aromatischetinktur, Mynsicht's Elixir.)

Manufacture: Add gradually sulphuric acid 10.9 Ml. (Cc.) to alcohol 70 Ml. (Cc), cool, add tincture of ginger 5 Ml. (Cc), oil of cinnamon .1 Ml. (Cc), alcohol q. s: 100 Ml. (Cc); contains free sulphuric acid and ethyl-sulphuric acid equivalent to 19-21 p. c of H2SO4. It is a clear, reddish-brown liquid; pleasant, aromatic odor; strongly acid taste and reaction; sp. gr. 0.933; with barium chloride T. S. - white precipitate, insoluble in hydrochloric acid. Should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, ev-20 (.3-1.3 Ml. (Cc)), well diluted.

Properties. - Powerful escharotic, charring black and destroying the parts touched, by abstracting water in the tissues and combining with the albumin; it promotes alkaline secretions, tonic, astringent, poisonous.

Uses. - Diarrhoea, hemorrhages, night-sweats, mucous discharges, cholera, quench thirst in fevers, cholera morbus, lead colic, gravel, stone, tapeworms, gastric disorders. Externally - ulcers, gangrene, cancer, caries of bone, ringworm, scabies (ointment 1 part to 8).

Poisoning: Similar to nitric acid. Give chalk, magnesium oxide or carbonate, alkaline carbonates, demulcent drinks, oils, egg-white, opium for pain, brandy or whisky for collapse; avoid pump.

Allied Product: