1. Dore'Ma Ammoni'Acum, Ammoniacum, Ammoniac

Dore'Ma Ammoni'Acum, Ammoniacum, Ammoniac. The gum-resin, official 1820-1900; E. Persia, Turkestan. Plant of striking appearance, dying after flowering; stem 1.6-2 M. (5-7°) high, greenish, joints greenish-purple; flowers small, white; leaves - radical and cauline. Gum-resin (ammoniac) exudes from stem and root, through fissures (due to varying temperature) or animal and insect punctures. It is in tears or cakes, the former preferred when 1.5-6 Mm. (1/16-1/4') thick, yellowish, fracture conchoidal, waxy, milk-white; odor peculiar;

Fig. 295.   Dorema Ammo~ niacum.

Fig. 295. - Dorema Ammo~ niacum.

taste acrid, bitter, nauseous; contains gum 18-28 p. c, resin 70 p. c, volatile oil 1-4 p. c, ash 1-4 p. c. Stimulant, expectorant, rubefacient, similar to but less powerful than asafetida; bronchitis, chronic catarrh, asthma, pleurisy; externally resolvent in white swelling, tumors, glandular enlargements. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); emulsion (water - milky), 4 p. c, ℥ss-l (15-30 Ml. (Cc.)). The root, under the name of Bombay Sumbul or Boi, although of closer texture, firmer, denser, and more reddish is used largely to adulterate the "false sumbul" so prevalent with us in the past, but it in reality resembles more closely our present official root (Fenda Sum-but). D. Au'cheri, W. Persia, yields also a similar product (ammoniac), while D. robus'tum gives a dissimilar gum-resin.

2. Ferula Tingita'Na, African Ammoniac

Ferula Tingita'Na, African Ammoniac. This is thought to be the "ammoniacum" of the ancients; it is darker than our ammoniac, odor agreeable, like benzoin, taste acrid, bitter; contains gum 9 p. c, resin 68 p. c, and yields um-belliferon.

3. Opop'Anax Opop-Anax (Chiro'Nium)

Opop'Anax Opop-Anax (Chiro'Nium). S. Europe. Root and stem exude yellowish milk, hardening into reddish-brown tears, having awaxy lustre, and a bitter, balsamic taste.

4. Cor'Nusfior'Ida, Flowering Dogwood

Cor'Nusfior'Ida, Flowering Dogwood. Cornaceae. The dried bark of root, official 1830-1890; N. America. Small tree, 4.5-10.5M. (15-35°) high, 12.5-25 Cm. (5-10') thick, flowers greenish with 4 large white involucral leaves, petaloid; fruit bright red. Bark deprived of the furrowed brown-gray outside corky layer, in curved pieces 3 Mm. (J') thick, reddish-brown color, striate, astringent, bitter; contains cornin (cornic acid), tannin 3 p. c, resin. Used as astringent, tonic, febrifuge, stimulant, as substitute for cinchona, when fresh emetic; in decoction, fluidextract (glycerin 15, dil. ale. 85). Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).

Fig. 296.   Cornus florida.

Fig. 296. - Cornus florida.

5. C. circina'ta, Round-leaved Dogwood. - The bark, official 1820-1880; N. America. Shrub 1.6-3 M. (5-10°) high, branches greenish, warty; leaves round, 10-12.5 Cm. (4-5') wide, woolly beneath; flowers white cymes; fruit, blue drupe. Bark quilled, curved, greenish, brownish-gray, with suberous warts or longitudinal lines, inside cinnamon-brown; used like C. florida, but is more bitter and less astringent.

6. C. Amo'num (seric'ea), Silky Cornel, Swamp Dogwood. - The bark, official 1820-1880; N. America. Shrub 1.6-3 M. (5-10°) high, branches purple; leaves elliptical, silky beneath; flowers yellowish, woolly cymes; fruit pale blue. Bark quilled, thin, outside purplish-brown, less warty than preceding, otherwise resembles it; used like C. florida, but is less bitter and astringent.