II Terpin Hydrate. Antiseptic (arresting the development of tubercle bacilli), expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic.
III Terebene. Stimulant, disinfectant, expectorant, astringent.
IV Resin. Antiseptic, slight stimulant.
Uses. - I. Oil of Turpentine: Internally - chronic bronchial catarrh, cystitis, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, gleet, chronic urinary troubles, piles, hemorrhages, puerperal fever, inflammation of bowels, traumatic erysipelas, intestinal worms, pneumonia, phosphorus-poisoning (old oil). Externally - rheumatism, sciatica, lumbago, neuralgia, bronchitis, pleurisy, peritonitis, tympanites, renal colic, gangrene, sprains, wounds, scabies, ringworms, enlarged glands, burns, frost-bites, colic; vapors of oil in whooping-cough, diphtheria, laryngitis. Often associated with various liniments, chloroform, camphor, olive oil, narcotic extracts, etc. The oleoresin may be given in pill form, hardened with magnesium oxide, dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.)
II Terpin Hydrate. Acute and chronic bronchitis, whooping-cough, chronic nephritis, chronic cystitis, gonorrhoea.
III Terebene. Chronic bronchitis by inhalation and on sugar.
IV Resin. Indolent ulcers, sores, wounds, in plasters, ointments, as emulsifying agent, chronic enteritis.
Poisoning: Have giddiness, gastro-enteritis, strangury, bloody, scanty urine, with violet odor; may have purging, cyanosis, dilated pupils, stertorous breathing, feeble, rapid pulse, coma, collapse. Give emetics, if no purging use enema, then plenty of water and demulcent drinks, hot fomentations to loins, opium to allay pain.
1. Pix Liquida. Tar, official. - (Syn., Pix Liq., Pine Tar, Resina Empyreumatica Liquida; Fr. Goudron vegetal; Ger. Holztheer, Theer.) A product obtained by the destructive distillation of the wood of Pinus. palustris or other species of Pinus (P. Tae'da, P. rig'ida, P. syhes'tris, and Larix sibir'ica.)
Manufacture: Refuse pine wood, cut in billets, is stacked compactly and covered with earth, except an opening at the apex for ignition and the escape of gases; slow combustion without flame is allowed to proceed, while a ditch at the bottom serves to run off the tarry liquid that is ladled into barrels; the wood is converted into charcoal and thus becomes a valuable by-product. In Europe permanent clay furnaces are used over and over. It is a true, impure turpentine, semi-liquid, viscid, blackish-brown, non-crystalline, translucent in thin layers, granular and opaque with age; odor empyreumatic, tere-binthinate, taste sharp, empyreumatic; miscible with alcohol, ether, chloroform, glacial acetic acid, fixed or volatile oils; heavier than water, slightly soluble in it - solution pale yellowish-brown, acid reaction. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution 10 Ml. (Cc.) with a drop of ferric chloride T. S. - greenish-brown color. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.), in pill.
Constituents. - Acetic acid, small quantities of formic, propionic, capronic acids, acetone, methyl alcohol, mesit, toluol, xylol, cumol, methol (all passing over with the light oil of tar,) naphthalene, pyrene, chrysene, paraffin, phenols, creosote (25 p. c), pyrocatechin, empyreumatic resin.
Preparations. - 1. Syrwpus Picis Liquidae, Syrup of Tar. (Syn., Syr. Pic. Liq., Syrupus Piceus; Fr. Sirop de Goudron; Ger. Theersirup.)
Manufacture: 1/2 p. c. Dissolve tar .5 Gm. in alcohol 5 Ml. (Cc.), add magnesium carbonate 1 Gm., sugar 5 Gm., triturate thoroughly, add water 41 Ml. (Cc.), stir occasionally for 2 hours, filter, return filtrate until clear, in which dissolve sugar 80 Gm., strain, add through strainer, water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 Ml. (Cc.)).
2. Unguentum Picis Liquidae. Tar Ointment. (Syn., Ung. Pic. Liq.; Fr. Pomatum cum Pice, Pommade de Goudron; Ger. Theersalbe.)
Manufacture: 50 p. c. Melt yellow wax 15 Gm., add lard 35 Gm., and to melted mixture add tar 50 Gm., previously warmed, incorporate thoroughly, strain, stir until congealed.
3. Oleum Picis Liquidae Rectificatum. Rectified Oil of Tar. (Syn., Ol. Pic. Liq. Rect., Rectified Tar Oil; Fr. Huile volatile de Goudron rectifiee; Ger. Gereinigtes Theerol.)
Manufacture: Distil wood-tar and collect that fraction of the distillate lighter than water, redistil. This volatile oil is a thick liquid, dark reddish-brown color, strong, empyreumatic odor and taste; soluble in alcohol, solution being acid, sp. gr. 0.975; contains hydrocarbons, phenols of acetic acid and other acids, undetermined empyreumatic products present in tar, being largely oil of turpentine. Dose, ij-5 (.13 - .3 Ml. (Cc.)), in pills, water, or syrup.
Unoff. Preps.: Alkaline Solution, 25 p. c. Glycerite, 6.3 p. c. Liquor Picis Alkalinus, 25 p. c, + potassium hydroxide 12.5, water q. s. 100. Mistura Olei Picis, 3.5 p. c. Petroxolin, 25 p. c. Compound Ointment, 4 p. c.
Properties. - Tar similar to oil of turpentine, but milder, scarcely ever vesicates, stimulant, expectorant, counter-irritant, insecticide. Internally - disturbs digestion, large doses may cause vomiting, colic, pain, headache, dark urine similar to phenol.
Uses. - Internally - bronchitis, phthisis, vesical catarrh, constipation. Externally - scabies, scaly eruptions, eczema, burns, boils, sores, ulcers, gangrene, fissured nipples, hemorrhoids; fumes destroy foul odors.
2. European Turpentine from P. Pinas'ter, P. Laric'io, P. syl-ves'tris, P. rotunda'ta and other allied species; similar to our once official oleoresin.
3. Chian Turpentine, Terebinthinae Chia (Pista'cia Terebin'thus) from Island of Chio or Scio. It is a greenish-yellow liquid, hardens to transparent mass, odor fennel-like, terebinthinate, taste mildly bitter. Once used for uterine cancer, but now in disfavor. Dose, gr. 20 (1.3 Gm.).
4. Pix Carbonis Praeparata (Br.). - Heat coal-tar at 50° C. (122° F.) for 1 hour (stirring); soluble in benzene, chloroform, partially in alcohol.