1. Oleum Terebinthinae. Oil of Turpentine, official.

2. Resina. Rosin, official.

Pinus palustris, Miller, and other species.

The volatile oil (1), and residue left (2) from distilling with water the concrete oleoresin (turpentine) obtained from this plant.

Habitat. S. United States, Virginia to Texas, near the coast.

Syn. Long leaved (Yellow Pitch, Broom, Pitch, Swamp, Georgia) Pine; Common Frankincense, Terebinthina Communis, Thus Americanum, Frankincense, Crude Turpentine: 1. 01. Tereb., Turpentine Oil, Spirits of Turpentine; Fr. Tere-binthine (du Pin) de Bordeaux; Essence de T6r6benthine officinale; Ger. (Gemeiner) Terpentin; Terpentinol: 2. Resin, Colophony; Fr. Resine blanche (jaune); Ger. Colophonium, Kolophonium, Geigenharz.

Pi'nus. L. see etymology, above, of Pinaceae.

Pa-lus'tris. L. paluster, swampy - i. e., it inhabits swamps or near marshy places.

Ter-e-bin'thi-na. L. terebinthus; Gr.

Terebinthina Turpentine 118

of or from the terebinth - turpentine tree.

Tur'pen-tine, fr. lurbentine, terebinthine, terebinthina.

Plant. - Large tree, 18-30 M. (60-100°) high, .3-.6 M. (1-2°) thick; bark thin, scaled, furrowed; wood hard, resinous; leaves many, crowded at end of branches, in 3's, 25-40 Cm. (10-16') long, very narrow, sharp-pointed, triquetrous, in clusters surrounded by a sheath 25 Mm. (1') long; flowers sterile in violet aments, 5 Cm. (2') long; Fruit cone, large, oblong, 15-25 Cm. (6-10') long, scales armed with short spine. Oleoresin (terebinthina, turpentine - once official), in yellowish, opaque masses, brittle in the cold, lighter internally, sticky, more or less glossy; terebinthinate odor and taste; alcoholic solution gives acid reaction; rarely seen as yellow, opaque, viscid liquid.

Constituents. - Concrete oleoresin: Volatile oil 20-30 p. c, Rosin (resina, resin) 50-60 p. c, bitter principle, formic, succinic, and possibly other resin acids - pinic and sylvic acids.

Oleum Terebinthinae. Oil of Turpentine, C10H16. Obtained by distilling with water the concrete oleoresin (turpentine); it is a colorless liquid, characteristic odor and taste, both becoming stronger and less pleasant on aging or exposure (owing to formation of ozone, resin, formic and acetic acids), soluble in 5 vols. of alcohol, sp. gr. 0.865, dextrorotatory, with hydrochloric acid forms artificial crystalline camphor, C10H16HCl; contains chiefly d-pinene (French oil l-pinene), also derivatives of pinene, and often camphene and fenchene. Tests: 1. In distilling 200 Ml. (Cc.) from 300 Ml. (Cc.) 90 p. c. comes over between 154-170° C. (309-338° F.). 2. Shake 5 Ml. (Cc.) with equal volume of potassium hydroxide T. S. - not darker than light straw yellow on standing 24 hours; evaporate 5 Ml. (Cc.) - residue .1 Gm. 3. Expose to air 3 drops on unsized, white paper - evaporates entirely without permanent stain (abs. of fixed oils, etc.); shake vigorously with equal volume of hydrochloric acid - no brown or green color on standing a few minutes. Must be added to fuming acids drop by drop. Impurities: Fixed oils, petroleum (benzin), paraffin oils, kerosene, rosin (oil), etc. Should be kept in well-closed containers.

Adulterations. - Tar oils, kerosene, petroleum benzin, paraffin oils, rosin oil, etc.

1. Resina. Rosin. This residue, left after distilling off the volatile oil from the concrete oleoresin (turpentine), is usually in sharp, angular, translucent, amber-colored fragments, frequently covered with a yellow dust, brittle at ordinary temperature; fracture shiny, shallow-con-choidal, odor and taste slightly terebinthinate; freely soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, glacial acetic acid, fixed or volatile oils, dilute solutions of the fixed alkali hydroxides, sp. gr. 1.08, easily fusible, burning with dense yellowish smoke; alcoholic solution acid; contains anhydride of abietic acid C44H62O4, 80-90 p. c., pinic and sylvic acids. Tests: 1. Shake with warm diluted alcohol - abietic anhydride converted into abietic acid, C44H64O5, crystalline, soluble in carbon disulphidc, benzene, alcohol, ether, chloroform, alkalies, glacial acetic acid. 2. Boil with alkaline solution - greasy salts of abietic acid (rosin soap); distil with superheated steam - benzene and toluene; incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c. The varieties depend upon color, and this upon degree of heat employed in distillation; the older the trees, the greater the yield of rosin, the smaller the yield of oil.

Fig. 15.   Pinus palustris.

Fig. 15. - Pinus palustris.

Commercial. - The P. palustris (P. austra'lis - i. e., southern) grows in dry sandy soil from the sea to 100 miles (160 Km.) inland, the young trees resembling brooms, the older furnishing (chiefly in North Carolina, some in South Carolina, Georgia) most of the turpentine and rosin of commerce. The oleoresin secretes in the sapwood and sparingly exudes spontaneously, but to obtain it profitably on a large scale the trees are boxed, cornered and chipped, which consists in cutting with a special axe, during winter, in the tree trunk (beginning 20-30 Cm. (8-12') above ground) 1-4 cavities of triangular shape, 30 Cm. (12') wide, 15 Cm. (6') high and deep, excavating downward so as to hold 4-8 pints (2-4 L.) (boxing), removing the bark above each box and hacking the exposed wood in shape of the letter L (cornering, chipping). The "crude" begins to flow the middle of March, running best July-August, slackening September-October, the boxes being emptied frequently, often 7 "dippings" a season, with "turpentine dippers or ladles," contents poured into barrels (250 pounds; 110 Kg.), and subsequently distilled; every few weeks the trees are hacked a little higher from ladders. The first year's flow is best, virgin dip, yielding 6 1/2 gallons (24 L.) of oil per barrel and " window-glass rosin;" succeeding years give yellow dip, yielding 4 gallons (15 L.) of oil per barrel and medium grades of rosin; some hardens on trees, scrapings, scrape, yielding 2 gallons (7.5 L.) of ,oil per barrel and brownish-black rosin. The exudation may be caught in detachable earthen cups, "cup-and-gutter system," which should replace, partly or entirely, the present most destructive process that causes the trees to be exhausted and abandoned in about 5 years, otherwise the industry seems doomed. In France covered pails or cups with lips, to avoid evaporation, chips, bark, etc., are used, into which the sap flows by a gutter through comparatively small hacked spaces, which, when alternating 5 working with 2 resting seasons, insures a handsome yield for 2 generations. The comminuted wood has been distilled with water, steam, alkali, etc., but with questionable satisfaction.