Monar'Du Puncta'Ta, Horse-Mint. The leaves and tops, official 1820-1880; United States. Perennial, .6-1 M. (2-3°) high, stem branched, downy, leaves 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, lanceolate, serrate, punctate, flowers yellow, spotted red with pinkish bracts, downy, calyx 5-toothed, aromatic, pungent, bitter; contains volatile oil. Used as carminative, stimulant, emmenagogue, nervine, diaphoretic, diuretic; flatulent colic, nausea, rheumatism, neuralgia, diarrhoea; in infusion. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.). Oleum Monardoe (volatile oil), official 1820-1880, is yellowish or reddish, sp. gr. 0.930; contains terpene, C10H16, 50 p. c, thymol (monardin), C10H14O, 25-61 p. c, also alcohol, C10H18O, and its acetic, butyric, and formic esters.
Hedeo'Ma Pulegioi'Des, (American) Pennyroyal. The dried leaves and flowering tops, official 1830-1910; N. America, sandy fields, hills, open woods, scenting the atmosphere. Annual herb; stem 25-37.5 Cm. (10-15') high, quadrangular, pubescent, branched; root fibrous, yellowish. Leaves opposite, 15-35 Mm. (3/5-1 2/5')
Fig. 335. - Melissa officinalis: flower and corolla, magnified.
Fig. 336. - Melissa officinalis: leaf.
long, thin, obtuse, obscurely serrate, glandular-hairy beneath, petiolate; flowers, axillary fascicles; calyx tubular, 5-toothed, bilabiate; corolla pale blue, spotted, bilabiate, containing 2 sterile and 2 fertile stamens; odor strong, mint-like; taste aromatic, pungent; solvents: alcohol, boiling water partially; contains volatile oil 1 p. c, bitter principle, tannin. Stimulant, carminative, emmenagogue,aromatic; flatulent colic, nausea, indigestion, corrective to purgatives; hot infusion - diarrhoea, bronchitis, rheumatism, amenorrhoea (hot hip and foot baths); odor repulsive to fleas, mosquitoes, etc.; large doses, for suppressed catamenia or for inducing abortion, have occasioned death from narcosis. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); fluidextract (diluted alcohol), 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)); infusion, 5 p. c, ℥ij (60 Ml. (Cc.)), every hour; spirit (oil 1, + alcohol 9), externally and in spray. Volatile oil (oleum hedeomae), official 1830-1910, often added to liniments as a rubefacient. Mentha Pule'-gium, European Pennyroyal, resembles closely the above, having oval, serrate leaves, and purplish flowers, cymes, corolla 4-lobed; Hedeoma piperi'ta, Mexico, is used for peppermint, while H. thymoi'des, Texas, having more agreeable odor, as aromatic, diaphoretic.
Melis'Sa Officinalis, Melissa, Balm. The leaves and tops, official 1840-1900; Asia Minor, S. Europe. Perennial herb with fragrance of lemons, growing in waste places; stems several, quadrangular, .3-1 M. (1-3°) high, branched at base, pubescent; flowers yellowish-white, purplish, calyx 5-toothed, tubular, bell-shaped; corolla bilabiate, 4 stamens. Leaves, 5 Cm. (2') long, petiolate,. ovate, obtuse, crenate, hairy,glandular,branches square; fragrant, aromatic, astringent, bitter; contains volatile oil 25 p. c, bitter principle, tannin, gum; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water. Carminative, diaphoretic, stimulant, antispasmodic; used as a refreshing drink; when cold for febrile affections, when hot acts slightly on the skin. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); water (aqua melissae), leaves (1) distilled with water (10); compound spirit (spiritus melissae compositus), balm 14 + lemon peel 12, nutmeg 6, cinnamon 3, clove 3, alcohol 150, water 250, distil 200 parts; fluidextract, exv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)); infusion, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)); oil, ej-2 (.06-.13 Ml. (Cc.)).