Agropyron repens,

(Linne) Beauvois.

The dried rhizome and roots, gathered in the spring.

Habitat. Europe, N. America; along roadsides and in cultivated grounds.

Syn. Tritic, Couch Grass, Dog Grass, Cutch (Scutch, Quitch, Quick, Twitch, Squitch) Grass, Couch Wheat, Quickens, Wickens, Wick; Fr. Chiendent officinal (petit); Ger. Queckenwurzel, Graswurzel.

Ag-ro-py'ron (Agropyrum). L. fr. Gr. grows wild in wheat fields.

Triticum Triticum 151

a field, +

Triticum Triticum 152

wheat - i. e.,

Re pens. L. fr. repo, creep, crawl - i. e., stem inclines to crawl on the ground. Trit'i-cum. L. fr. lero, lerere, pp. tritus, thresh, rub, grind - i. e., seeds must be ground for eating.

Plant. - Perennial weed; culm .6-1.2 M. (2-4°) high; spikes compressed, 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long; spikelets 3-8-flowered, 2-ranked, alternate on opposite sides of solitary, terminal spike; glumes transverse, lanceolate, herbaceous, 3-7-nerved, pointed or awned from tip; palet flattened, bristly ciliate. Rhizome, of horizontal growth, very long, creeping, subcylindrical; usually in pieces 4-12 Mm. (1/6 - 1/2') long, 1-2 5 Mm. (1/25-1/10 thick, yellowish-brown, longitudinally furrowed, smooth, lustrous, nodes with circular leaf-scars, few root-scars, occasional slender roots; fracture tough, fibrous; internally lemon-yellow; large, hollow pith; odor slight, aromatic; taste sweetish; roots filiform, irregularly branching, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-20 long, .5 Mm. (1/50') thick, frequently covered with long root hairs. Powder, light yellow; microscopically - irregular, lignified fragments, many with tracheae associated with sclerenchy-matous fibres, epidermal and parenchyma fragments of rectangular cells having walls with transverse pores. Solvents: cold or hot water. Dose, 3ss-3 (2-12 Gm.).

Constituents. - Triticin 8 p. c, fruit-sugar 2.5-3.5 p. c, inosite, glucose, mucilage, malates, ash 2-3 p. c; lactic acid and mannite are found in the extract as results of fermentation. Triticin. - Gum-like substance resembling inulin, convertible into levulose. Obtained by exhausting with water, neutralizing with baryta, concentrating, precipitating with lead subacetate, removing lead, treating with charcoal, neutralizing, concentrating, precipitating with alcohol; it is an amorphous, white powder, inodorous, tasteless, deliquescent, with nitric acid oxidizes into oxalic acid.

Fig. 26.   Agropyron repens.

Fig. 26. - Agropyron repens.

Preparations. - 1. Fluidextractum Tritici. Fluidextract of Trit-icum. (Syn., Fldext. Tritic., Fluid Extract of Triticum, Fluid-extract of Couch Grass; Fr. Extrait fiuide de (petit) Chiendent; Ger. Queckenwurzelfluidextract.)

Manufacture: Mix, macerate for 2 hours in covered container 100 Gm. with boiling water 500 Ml. (Cc.), pack, percolate with boiling water until exhausted, evaporate to 80 Ml. (Cc.), cool, add alcohol 20, and, if necessary, water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Dose, 3ss-3 (2-12 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Preps.: Decoction, 5 p. c, dose, ad libitum. Extract, dose, gr. 10-20 (.6-1.3 Gm.). Infusion, 5 p. c, dose, ad libitum.

Fig. 27.   Agropyron repens: rhizome and transverse section, magnified 3 diam.

Fig. 27. - Agropyron repens: rhizome and transverse section, magnified 3 diam.

Properties. - Diuretic, aperient, demulcent, vulnerary.

Uses. - Cystitis, irritable bladder, dysuria, gravel, jaundice, bronchitis, skin diseases, gout; relieves thirst, allays fever, promotes urination. Large and frequent drinks once considered a blood purifier. Allied Plants:

1. Ave'Na Sati'Va, Averoe Farina (Oatmeal)

Ave'Na Sati'Va, Averoe Farina (Oatmeal). The meal prepared from the seed, official 1820-1880; Asia, Europe, cultivated. Plant .6-1.3 M. (2-4°) high, culm smooth, leaves linear, veined, rough, panicles loose, spikelets 2-3-flowered, paleae (husk) cartilaginous. The grain yields when ground - oatmeal, when deprived of paleae - groats. Oatmeal is not uniform, but is yellowish-white, gluten and husk present, bitterish starch granules poly-hedric, muller-shaped. Composed of husk 25 p. c, grain 75 p. c; the former contains fixed oil 1-1.5 p. c, sugar and gum .25-75 p. c, proteids 2 p. c; the latter starch 64-66 p. c., fat 5-7 p. c, proteids, 18-21 p. c. (mainly avenin), salts 1-3 p. c. Used as demulcent, laxative, dietetic, nutritive. The indigestible husks act as a mechanical irritant, exciting peristalsis, but may constipate by compaction. Given as porridge or gruel may ferment and impair digestion.

2. Andropo'Gon Squarro'Sa (Murica'Tus), Vetiveria (Vitivert)

Andropo'Gon Squarro'Sa (Murica'Tus), Vetiveria (Vitivert). E. India. The fibrous wiry roots from the rhizome; yellowish-brown, waxy, 15-20 Cm. (6-8') long, 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, tough, aromatic, balsamic; contains volatile oil, resin. Used as tonic, stimulant, in perfumery, sachet powders, etc.

3. Sor'Ghum Vidga'Re, Broom Corn

Sor'Ghum Vidga'Re, Broom Corn. Fruit 4 Mm. (1/6') long, oval, flattened, brownish-yellow. Used in decoction (10 p. c) for cystitis, etc.

Fig. 28.   Oat starch: magnified 250 diam.

Fig. 28. - Oat starch: magnified 250 diam.