Ulmus fulva,

Michaux.

The bark deprived of the outer corky layer and dried

Habitat. N. America, New England, S. Carolina, west to Louisiana, Nebraska.

Syn. Elm Bark, Slippery Elm, Moose-, Red-, Indian-, Sweet-, Rock or American Elm; British Tea (the leaves), Cortex Ulmi Interior; Fr. Ecorce d'Orme (fauve); Ger. Ulmenrinde, Rusterrinde.

Ul'mus. L. see etymology, page 157, of Ulmaceae.

Ful'va. L. fulvus, deep yellow, tawny - i. e., the color of the liber bark.

Plant. - Large tree, 15-18 M. (50-60°) high, .3-.G M. (1-2°) thick; bark and wood reddish-brown, branches rough, whitish; leaves large 10-20 Cm. (4-80 long, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') broad, oblong, acuminate, unequal at subcordate base, unequally serrate, pubescent; rough on both sides, petiolate, buds covered with dense russet down; flowers April, small, appearing before leaves, sessile, in clusters, calyx downy, corolla wanting; fruit samara, 12-18 Mm. (1/2-3/4') long, flat, broadly oblong, entire, notched, 1-celled, wing yellow, silky with short fulvous hairs. Bark (inner) usually in bundles of flat, oblong pieces about 30 Cm. (120 long, 10-15 Cm. (4-60 broad, light brown (buff), with occasional dark brown patches of adhering cork, longitudinally striate, and with detachable bundles of bast-fibres colored blackish by diluted iodine T. S.; inner surface light yellowish-brown, nearly smooth, finely striate, only slightly darkened by diluted iodine T. S.; fracture fibrous with projecting bast-fibres, broken surface porous from large mucilage cells; odor distinct; taste mucilaginous. Powder, light brown (fawn); microscopically - fibrous fragments, granular portion starch grains,

.003-.025 Mm. (1/8325-1/1000') broad, long bast-fibres, prisms of calcium oxalate, fragments of large mucilage cells with adhering starch grains.

Test: 1. Macerate for 1 hour 1 Gm. in distilled water 40 Ml. (Cc.), forcibly strain - solution of a mucilaginous consistence. Solvent: water. Dose, 3ij-4 (8-15 Gm.).

Adulterations. - Bark: Barks that are more brittle, less fibrous and mucilaginous; Powder: Corn meal, flour, starches.

Commercial: Tree flourishes in open high places, firm dry soil, being distinguished from U. americana by character of branches (rougher), leaves, buds, flowers, seeds. Bark should be collected in spring, deprived of epidermis, and dried, for which trees are felled in Michigan and other Western States, peeled and wood burnt or allowed to decay.

Constituents. - Mucilage, starch; European bark also contains tannin and bitter principle, but no starch.

Mucilage. - Resembles that of flaxseed - precipitated by lead acetate, but alcohol separates from its solution a gelatinous liquid.

Preparations. - (Unoff.): Mucilage, 6 p. c. (if to be free from starch must use cold water); dose, ad libitum. Poultice. Uterine tents.

Properties. - Demulcent, emollient, nutritive.

Uses. - Dysentery, diarrhoea, diseases of urinary passages, bronchitis. Externally - finely ground or powdered bark mixed with hot water into pasty mass and used as a poultice for inflammations, boils, etc.; in shape of tents to dilate fistulae, strictures, os uteri, also in form of vaginal and rectal suppositories.

Allied Plants:

1. Ulmus Campes'Tris

Ulmus Campes'Tris. Europe. Bark thinner than official, cinnamon color, mucilaginous, bitterish, astringent. U. effu'sa, Black Elm, bark very similar; U. america'na, White Elm, New England, chiefly shade tree; U. ala'ta, Wahoo, S. United States. Bark used in making ropes.