Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi,

(Linne) Sprengel.

The dried leaves with not more than 5 p. c. of stems, foreign matter.

Habitat. Europe, Asia, N. America, United States, south of New Jersey, westward to California, New Mexico; rocky or sandy soil - pine woods.

Syn. Bearberry, Red Bearberry, Upland (Mountain, Wild) Cranberry, Universe Vine, Mountain Box, Bear's Grape (Bilberry, Whortleberry), Barren Myrtle, Kinnikinnick, Fox (Meal) berry; Br. Uvae Ursi Folia; Fr. Busserole, Raisin d'Ours; Ger. Barentraubenbliitter.

Arc-to-staph'y-los. L. fr. Gr

Uva Ursi Uva Ursi 617

a bear, +

Uva Ursi Uva Ursi 618

a bunch of grapes - i. e., the roughness of the fruit and these berries occurring in clusters like grapes. U'va-ur'si. L.'wya, a grape, + ursus, ursi, a bear, of a bear - bear-berry - i. e., berries are rough or bearish.

Plant. - Low evergreen shrub; stem creeping, young branches rising obliquely upward several inches; flowers May, 3-15 together, pinkish-white, racemes, calyx reddish, corolla urceolate, reddish-white or white with red lips; fruit autumn, 6 Mm. (1/4') broad, fleshy, bright red berry, pericarp thick, 5-seeded, resembles currants in appearance and clusters. Leaves, obovate, oblong-spatulate, 12-30 Mm. (1/2-1 1/5') long, 5-13 Mm. (1/5-1/2') broad, entire, slightly revolute, apex obtuse, rounded, base cuneate, tapering into short, stout petiole; dark green, glaucous, shiny, finely reticulate; under surface yellowish-green, slightly pubescent, especially on midrib, coriaceous; fracture short; odor aromatic, tea-like; taste astringent, somewhat bitter. Powder, olive-green; microscopically - irregular fragments, epidermal cells polygonal, ellipERICACEAE tical stomata surrounded by 5-18 neighboring cells, chloroplastids, irregular masses of carbohydrates, fibro-vascular bundles, spiral tracheae, sclerenchymatous fibres, crystal fibres, cells with yellowish-brown content, bluish-black with ferric chloride T. S. Tests: 1. Cover over .1 Gm. (powder) on watch-crystal with another watch-crystal, heat gently - crystalline sublimate forms, long rods, feather-like aggregates, polarizing light with brilliant colors. 2. Macerate 1 Gm. with boiling water 10 Ml. (Cc), shake occasionally until cold, filtrate with a few drops of ferrous sulphate T. S. - grayish-purple precipitate; collect in autumn. Solvents: diluted alcohol; boiling water. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).

Adulterations. - Vaccin'ium Vi'tis-Idoe'a, Wineberry, Cowberry, Red Whortleberry - leaves resemble uva ursi, but blackish, bristly points on under surface, and V. ullgino'sum, Bog Whortleberry Great Bilberry - leaves crenate, much thinner, under surface pubescent; Den'drium (Leiophyl'lum) buxifo'-lium, Sand Myrtle, N. J., southward; small shrub, leaves oval, shining, margin revolute, reticulate; Bux'us semper'virens, Box, Bush-tree Dudgeon, cultivated in gardens, leaves ovate, narrower toward apex than near the base; contain buxine and parabuxine (both giving bitterness), tannin, volatile oil, bitter extractive; Epigoe'a re'pens, Trailing Arbutus {Mayflower, Ground Laurel, Gravel Plant), and Chimaphila um-bellata, Pipsissewa; leaves resemble and both contain the three active constituents of uva ursi; used in lithic acid gravel. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).

Constituents. - Arbutin, C12H16O7, Ericolin, C34H56O22, Urson, C10H16O, Tannin 6-7 p. c, ericinol, C10H16O, gallic acid, ellagic acid, coloring matter, ash 3 p. c.

Arbutin. - A glucoside obtained by precipitating the decoction with lead subacetate, treating filtrate with hydrogen sulphide, and evaporating to crystallize. It is in needles, bitter, soluble in alcohol or hot water, insoluble in ether, blue with diluted ferric chloride; with sulphuric acid yields glucose, arctuvin (hydroqui-none), C6H6O2, and methyl-hydroquinone, C7H8O2. Dose, gr. 3-5 (.2-.3 Gm.).

Ericolin. - This is left in the mother-liquor from arbutin; it is a bitter glucoside, yellow, soluble in water, alcohol; yields glucose and ericinol (volatile oil).

Fig. 299.   Arctostaphylos Uva ursi.

Fig. 299. - Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi.

Urson. - Crystalline principle, resinous, obtained by exhausting with ether, evaporating, recrystallizing from alcohol; occurs in tasteless needles, insoluble in water, sparingly in alcohol, ether.

Fig. 300.   Arctostaphylos Uva ursi: Piece of leaf epidermis (lower surface) showing large stomata.

Fig. 300. - Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi: Piece of leaf epidermis (lower surface) showing large stomata.

Preparations. - 1. Fluidextractum Uvoe Ursi. Fluidextract of Uva Ursi. (Syn., Fldext. Uvse Ursi, Fluid Extract of Uvae Ursi; Fr. Extrait fluide de Busserole; Ger. Barentraubenblatterfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Ergotae, page 60; 1st menstruum: water50 Ml. (Cc), alcohol 30, glycerin 10; 2nd menstruum: 33 p. c. alcohol; reserve first 80 Ml. (Cc). Dose, exv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Preps.: Decoction, dose, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)). Extractum Uvoe Ursi (alco-

Fig. 301.   Arctostaphylos Uva ursi: Bast fibres and parenchyma from part of leaf without chlorophyll, containing a single crystal.

Fig. 301. - Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi: Bast-fibres and parenchyma from part of leaf without chlorophyll, containing a single crystal.

Fig. 302.   Palaquium Gutta.

Fig. 302. - Palaquium Gutta.

hol 30 p. c), dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.). Infusum Uvoe Ursi (Br.), 5 p. c, dose, ℥ss-2 (15-60 Ml. (Cc.)).

Properties. - Astringent, diuretic, nephritic, tonic, disinfectant (due to the hydroquinone formed); large doses vomit, purge, oxytocic.

Uses. - Cystitis, gravel, chronic nephritis, urethritis, incontinence of urine, dysuria, strangury, uterine hemorrhage, gleet, leucorrhoea, inenorrhagia, urinary calculi, bronchitis, diarrhoea, cardiac dropsy.

Allied Plants: