Gigartinaceae. Distinguished by being parenchymatous plants, growring in fresh or salt water, or moist places, red, purple, or violet hue, less commonly green or blackish; composed of 250 species. Chon-drus, Gigartina.
Hypocreaceae. Distinguished by rarely containing chlorophyll, saprophytes, parasites, either soft, fibrous, gelatinous, fleshy, leathery, horny, mycelium inconspicuous, often producing a dense homogeneous tissue; composed of 200 species. Claviceps.
Polypodiaceae. Distinguished by leaves being fronds, large, spores one kind, in cases (sporangia) on under surface or margin, cir-cinate in vernation, stems usually prostrate, subterranean; composed of 70 genera, 3000 species. Dryopteris.
Lycopodiaceae. Distinguished by yellow spores, low, usually moss-like evergreens, stems much branched, elongated, sporangia 1-3-celled, solitary in the axils of leaves, or on their upper surface; composed of 125 species. Lycopodium.
Pinaceae (Coniferae). Distinguished as resinous, evergreen trees, shrubs, flowers unisexual, no perianth, staminate - catkins, pistillate - scaly aments, becoming cones, sepals naked (2), leaves needle-shaped; composed of 25 genera, 240 species. Pinus, Juniperus.
Palmaceae. Distinguished by plants being unbranched, leaves large, plaited, palmately parallel-veined, in one terminal cluster, perianth double, 3-merous; composed of 129 genera, 1100 species. Serenoa.
Melanthaceae. Distinguished by ovary superior, capsules mostly septicidal, with rootstocks, rarely bulbs, perianth 6, stamens 6, seeds appendaged, leaves grass-like, polygamous or dioecious; composed of 36 genera, 140 species. Veratrum, Asagroea.
Convallariaceae. Distinguished by being erect herbs, fruit - fleshy berry, no tendrils, never with bulbs or corms, flowers solitary, regular, perfect, 6's, ovary superior; composed of 23 genera, 215 species. Colchicum.