1. Anise From Conium

Anise From Conium. Anise has flat face, 5 light brown filiform ridges, also 15 or more thin oil-tubes; conium has 5 crenate ribs but no oil-tubes. See pages 428, 432.

2. Fennel From Caraway

Fennel From Caraway. Fennel has 5 obtuse, conspicuous ribs, 4 oil-tubes on back, 2-4 on flat face; caraway has 5 filiform ribs, 6 oil-tubes. See pages 430, 434.

VI. Seeds.

Stramonium from Black Mustard and Colchicum. - Stramonium has albumin whitish, oily, enclosing cylindrical embryo, curved parallel with edge of seed; mustard has oily embryo, radicle curved, 2 cotyledons, one folded over the other; colchicum has albumin oily, horny, tough, enclosing small embryo opposite hilum, monocotyledon-ous. See pages 112, 250, 534.

VII. Powders. 1. Starches. - Each starch has a characteristic-sized and shaped granule dependent upon its source. As these, therefore, all differ, we have only to take several 1/4 gr. (.016 Gm.) samples of a specimen and add to each a drop of water on a slide under a cover-glass - with 1/5-inch objective we can recognize readily the predominating starch and identify all possible starchy adulterations: corn-starch {official, pages 82, 84) is mostly in pentagons and hexagons; rice-starch (page 85) similar, but only one-fifth size; wheat-starch (page 84), lenticular layer indistinct, hilum central, third larger than corn-starch; also notice starches of maranta (pages 84, 127), canna (page 127), curcuma (pages 85, 133), sago (pages 85, 95), ginger (page 130), cassava (pages 85, 372). All starches turn blue with iodine and swell with potassium hydroxide solution or diluted sulphuric acid.

2. Ginger From Corn- And Wheat-Starch

Ginger From Corn- And Wheat-Starch. Ginger contains normally about 20 p. c. of its own peculiar starch, whose granules are flat and broadly ovate, but when seen edgewise look long and narrow, with small hilum near narrow end, marked by many transverse lines. Resemble but are smaller than granules of E. India arrowroot; corn-and wheat-starch added increase the amount beyond 20 p. c, and can be recognized by their characteristic shapes. See pages 84, 130.

3. Cloves From Powdered Shells And Starch

Cloves From Powdered Shells And Starch. Cloves is very simple, consisting of fragments of parenchyma-cells, having thin walls and a faint yellow color; a few long, stout, colorless bast-fibres and some small spiral vessels; no starch; shells consist of thick-walled stone-cells, lignified, with pore-canals, etc. See pages 84, 416.

4. Taraxacum From Chicory

Taraxacum From Chicory. Taraxacum consists of clear white fragments of parenchyma-cells, with occasional large vessels approaching the scalariform in type; chicory is similar to taraxacum, except that the vessels are slightly smaller and more reticulate. Some latex tubes may also be seen. See pages 593, 596.

5. Digitalis From Senna

Digitalis From Senna. Digitalis has numerous multicellular hairs, which, having constrictions, appear to be formed of a number of elongated cells; senna, on the contrary, has many unicellular hairs having thick and rough cell-walls. See pages 283, 538.

6. Stramonium From Tobacco

Stramonium From Tobacco. Stramonium has multicellular hairs somewhat resembling digitalis, while tobacco also has multicellular hairs, some having glands at their free extremities. See pages 534, 537.

7. Kamala From Lupulin

Kamala From Lupulin. Kamala consists of stellately arranged, colorless hairs mixed with depressed globular glands, containing 40-60 club-shaped vesicles; lupulin consists of minute granules, subglobular or hood-shaped, reticulate, lower half obtusely conical. See pages 161, 375.

8. Lycopodium From Pine-Pollen

Lycopodium From Pine-Pollen. Lycopodium consists of granules that are tetrahedral, reticulated, rounded on one side and on the edge, with short projections; pine-pollen consists of an elliptic cell, at each end of which is attached a globular cell. See pages 67, 68.