1. Eucaine Hydrochloride (A) Eucainae Hydrochloridum (A)

Eucaine Hydrochloride (A) Eucainae Hydrochloridum (A). Alpha-eucainum (eucaine), Hydrochloride of benzoyl-n-methyltetra-methyl-y-oxy-piperidine-carboxylie methylester, C19H27 NO4. HC1+H2O.

Manufacture: Treat triacetonamine with hydrocyanic acid, hydrolize product by boiling with water, introduce benzoyl and methyl groups by successive treatment with benzoyl chloride and methyl iodide, and the resultant product is the free base - alpha-eucaine (eucaine-α), which can be crystallized from ether or alcohol. It is in large, glossy colorless prisms, soluble in ether, alcohol, chloroform, benzene, slightly in water, forms salts with acids, the hydrochloride being in glossy neutral scales or plates, soluble in water (10). Differs from cocaine hydrochloride in being less soluble in water, giving yellow crystalline precipitate with 5 p. c. solution chromic acid.

Properties and Uses. - Local anaesthetic like cocaine, for which it was intended as a substitute, but owing to the ocular irritation and frequent toxic effects being similar, it has given way largely to the official salt, beta-eucaine; used on wounds, mucous surfaces, 1-5 p. c. solutions, hypodermically, exv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)) of 6 p. c. solution; may employ ointment, 1 p. c, + olive oil, 2, wool fat 7. Poisoning: Less toxic than cocaine, but when taken internally produces the same effects; excessive quantities should be combated by strong coffee, alcohol, digitalis, strychnine, ammonia, ether, nitroglycerin, etc.

Theobromine. Di-methyl Xanthine, C5H2(CH3)2N4O2.

Manufacture: From the seeds of Theobroma Cacao and from xanthine, which is a substance closely related to uric acid. It is in colorless bitter crystals, sparingly soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. See page 398.

Caffeine. Caffeina (Theine). - Tri-methyl Xanthine, C5H(CH3)3.-N4O2 + H2O. - (Official.) See page 547.

Theobromine Sodio-Salicylate. Theobrominae Sodio-Salicylas. Diuretin. - Theobrominum Natrio-salicylicum, C7H7N4O2Na + C6H4-(OH)COONa. - (Official.) See page 400.

Diacetylmorphine Hydrochloride. Diacetylmorphinae Hydrochloridum. - Heroine Hydrochloride, Heroinse Hydrochloridum, C17H17-(C2H3O2)2NOHC1. - (Official.) See page 238.

Tropacocaine Hydrochloride. Tropacocainae Hydrochloridum. Benzoyl-pseudotropeine Hydrochloride, C15H19NO2HCl. - Obtained synthetically from tropin by electrolytic reduction, from which get benzoyl derivative that is converted into the hydrochloride. Occurs in colorless needle-shaped crystals, melting at 271° C. (520° F.), soluble in water, solutions keeping several months; heated with hydrochloric acid splits into benzoic acid and tropine, incompatible with alkaloidal reagents.

Properties and Uses. - Local anaesthetic - resembling cocaine, but only half as poisonous, while anaesthesia is quicker and more prolonged and mydriasis much less; ophthalmology, dentistry, being applied in 3-10 p. c. aqueous solutions containing .6 p. c. sodium chloride.

Novocaine. Ethocaine. Ethocaina. - Para-aminobenzoyl-diethyl-aminoethanol Hydrochloride, C13H20N2O2HCI.

Occurs in colorless, needle-shaped crystals which melt at 156° C. (313° F.), soluble in alcohol (30), water (1), giving a neutral solution from which alkalies and their carbonates precipitate the free base as a colorless oil, quickly congealing to a crystalline mass - solution, however, not precipitated by sodium bicarbonate nor decomposed by boiling.

Incompatibles: Alkalies, alkali carbonates, alkaloidal reagents (potassium mercuric-chloride, potassium iodide, picric acid, etc.).

Properties and Uses. - Local anaesthetic, non-irritating; similar to cacaine, but does not cause hyperaemia or necrosis of tissues, and much less toxic than it or any of its other substitutions. Dose, infiltration anaesthesia - gr. 4 (.2 Gm.) with physiological salt solution ℥1.6-3.2 (50-100 Gm.), with or without suprarenal alkaloid solution (1 in 1,000) ev-10 (.3-.6 Ml. (Cc.)): for injections - gr. 1.5 (.1 Gm.) in salt solution gr. 75-150 (5-10 Gm.), with or without suprarenal alkaloid solution (1 in 1,000) ex (.6 Ml. (Cc.)): ophthalmology - 1-5-10 p. c. solutions; rhino-laryngology - 5-20 p. c. solutions with suprarenal alkaloid solution evi-8 (.4-.5M1. (Cc.)) in each ex (10Ml. (Cc.)); internally: - gr. 5-8 (.3-5 Gm.).

Novorenal - name applied to sterilized solutions of various strengths of novocaine + adrenalin in normal salt solution for dental surgery.

Euquinine. Quininae AEthyl-carbonas. Quinine Ethyl-carbonate. Euchinin, C23H28N2O4. Obtained by the action of chlorocar-bonic ethyl ester on quinine. Occurs in tasteless, odorless, light fleecy, white, needle-shaped crystals, melting at 95° C. (203° F.), soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, sparingly in water, slightly alkaline, with acids forming crystalline bitter salts - tasteless tannate - incompatible with acids which develop bitter quinine taste.

Properties and Uses. - Similar to quinine, with the advantage of being tasteless; malaria, intermittens, pneumonia, pleurisy, whooping-cough. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1 - 2 Gm.), daily; malaria, gr. 40 (2.6-Gm.), in syrup or milk.

Saloquinine and Saloguinine Salicylate are salicylic esters of quinine, containing about 73 p. c. of that alkaloid, for which, owing to lack of taste, they are good substitutes.

Stovaine. Stovainum. Benzoyl-ethyl-dimetylaminopropanol Hydrochloride, C14H21O2NHC1.

Manufacture: React with benzoyl chloride on a-dimethyl-amino-pentonal-6, a substance produced by the action of ethylmagnesium chloride on methylamino-acetone. Occurs in small brilliant crystals (scales), melting at 175° C. (347° F.), soluble in alcohol, water, the latter solutions being slightly acid and sterilized at 115° C. (239° F.), without decomposition, precipitated by alkaloidal reagents and decomposed by dilute alkalies.