Piperazine. Piperazina. - Diethylene-diamine, Ethylene-imine, Ar-thriticine.
Manufacture: By the action of ammonia upon ethylene bromide of chloride, giving a mixture of salts of different bases, including diethyl-ene diamine, which is separated by treating solution of mixed salts with excess of sodium nitrite at 70° C. (158° F.), yielding dinitroso-piperazine as crystalline mass, treat with acids or reducing agents, getting ammonia and salts of piperazine, distil with alkalies to obtain pure base. It is in colorless, acicular crystals, soluble in water, less so in alcohol, very hygroscopic; dissolves 12 times more uric acid than will lithium carbonate, and its urate compound is soluble in water (50), lithium urate in 368. Dose, gr. 10-15 (.6-1 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. - Diuretic. Increases the urea, but diminishes the uric acid in urine; gout, rheumatism; large doses may produce tremors, clonic spasms, general depression.
Lycetol. Dimethyl-piperazine Tartrate, C10H20N2O6. Obtained by distilling glycerin with ammonium chloride, reducing the dimethyl-pyrazine, isolated from the distillation products, with sodium, converting base thus obtained, after purification, into the tartrate. It is a white, odorless powder, melting at 250° C. (482° F.), anhydrous, slightly hygroscopic, soluble in water giving acidulous solutions; incompatible with alkalies which liberate the insoluble free base. Diuretic, uric acid solvent, being well tolerated by and free from disturbing effects oh stomach; chronic gout, rheumatism, lithiasis. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.), well diluted, preferably with carbonated water, plain or sweetened.
Diaptherin. Oxy-quin-aseptol. - Oxychinaseptol.
O - NH.C9H6(OH)
O - NH.C9H6(OH)
Manufacture: This is made by uniting 2 molecules of ortho-oxy-quinoline with 1 molecule of ortho-phenol-sulphonic acid. It is a bright yellow powder of hexagonal prisms, soluble in water, diluted alcohol, non-caustic and non-toxic, which properties render it preferable to phenol (carbolic acid).
Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic, wounds (in 1 p. c. solutions).
Analgen. Benzanalgen. - Ortho-ethoxy-ana-mono-benzoyl-amido-quinoline.
This is obtained, by a very complicated process, as a white, neutral, tasteless powder, soluble in hot alcohol or acids, slightly in cold alcohol, insoluble in water, melts at 208° C. (406° F.). ' Dose, gr. 10-15 (.6-1 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. - Antipyretic, antirheumatic; rheumatism, neuralgia, headache.
Orexine Hydrochloride. Phenyl-di-hydro-quinazoline Hydrochloride.
Manufacture: Start with formanilide, making sodium formanilide, then orthonitrobenzyl-formanilide, and finally orexine hydrochloride. It occurs as a white powder, or in acicular crystals, bitter, pungent taste, soluble in alcohol, water (13), insoluble in ether, very irritating to the nostrils; tannate causes no gastric irritation.
Properties and Uses. - Stomachic. Dose, gr. 4-8 (.26-.5 Gm.), in wafers, to be accompanied with a large draught of water.
Thalline. Tetra-hydro-para-quin - anisol.
Manufacture: Heat a mixture of para-amido-anisol, para-nitro-anisol, glycerin, sulphuric acid, treat this with tin and hydrochloric acid. The free base at ordinary temperatures is an oily liquid, but on cooling gives yellowish-white crystals, soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, sparingly in benzin or water, anise-like odor, nauseous, with oxidizing agents gives green color and forms salts with acids.
Thalline Sulphate. Thallinae Sulphas, 2(C10H13NO)H2SO4, or 2C9H10N(OCH3)H2SO4 + 2H2O. - This is obtained by dissolving thalline in diluted sulphuric acid and crystallizing or granulating; it is the salt mostly used, often being designated simply as thalline. It occurs as a yellowish-white crystalline powder, anise-like odor, nauseous, bitter, saline, pungent taste, soluble in hot water, spaiingly in chloroform or ether, cold water (7), alcohol (100); solutions darken with age and exposure to light; contains thalline 76.9 p. c. and sulphuric acid 23.1 p. c.
Thalline Tartrate. Thallinae Tartras, C10H13NO,C4H6O6. - This is a yellowish-white crystalline powder, resembling the sulphate in appearance and taste, but is much less soluble in water (10); contains thalline 52.2 p. c. and tartaric acid 47.8 p. c.
Properties and Uses. - These thalline compounds are antipyretics, germicides, rarely used internally, being poisonous; useful as injections for gonorrhoea in 1-2 p. c. solutions.
Antipyrine. Antinyrina, C6H5(CH3)2C3HN2O or C11H12N2O. (Official.) See page 868.
Antipyrine Salicylate. Salipyrine.
Manufacture: By the direct union of molecular proportions of antipyrine and salicylic acid, which is accomplished by heating together 57.7 p. c. of the former and 42.3 p. c. of the latter, dissolving in alcohol and crystallizing. It is a white crystalline powder, sweetish taste of salicylic acid, soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, boiling water (25), water (200), melts at 91° C. (196.7° F.). Dose, gr. 2-20 (.13-1.3 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. - Antirheumatic, antineuralgic; chronic articular rheumatism, sciatica.
Pyramidon. - Dimethyl-amido-antipyrine, C13H17N3O. A substitution product of antipyrine, C11H12N2O, into which a dimethyl-amino group, N(CH3)2, has been introduced by reducing nitroso-antipyrine to amido-antipyrine and treating this with methyl chloride or iodide. It is a yellowish-white crystalline powder, slightly alkaline, nearly tasteless, melting at 108° C. (226° F.), soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, water (10), producing with oxidizing agents and acacia colorless solutions, having incompatibilities similar to antipyrine.
Properties and Uses. - Antipyretic, anodyne, similar to antipyrine, but effect upon nervous system more powerful and lasting, can be given in smaller doses, thereby rendering action slower; said to be harmless to blood, kidneys and heart, although the latter's action is stimulated. Chronic fevers of tuberculosis, acute febrile conditions in typhoid, erysipelas, pneumonia. Dose, gr. 5-8 (.3-5 Gm.), tablets, a single dose usually sufficing for 24 hours.
Hypnal. Monochloral Antipyrine, CCl3,CH(OH)2 + C11H12N2O.
Manufacture: About equal quantities of the molecular proportions of antipyrine and hydrated chloral are dissolved each separately in water, then mixed together, and the underlying oily stratum allowed to crystallize. It is in colorless crystals, nearly tasteless, non-irritating to mucous membranes, soluble in water (15), melts at 67.5° C. (154° F.). Dose, gr. 2-20 (.13-1.3 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. - Hypnotic; analgesic.
Iodopyrine. Iodoantipyrine, C11H11IN2O.
Manufacture: A hot solution of iodine (1) in alcohol (12) is mixed with a solution of antipyrine (1) in alcohol (4). The mixture after several days deposits crystals of iodopyrine; this is a substitute for antipyrine in which 1 hydrogen atom in the benzene nucleus is replaced by iodine. It is in colorless, silky, prismatic, tasteless needles, odorless, soluble in hot water, alcohol, slightly in cold water, melts at 160° C. (320° F.). Dose, gr. 2-20 (.13-1.3 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. - Causes fall of temperature, with perspiration, without collapse or shivering. Has no advantage over antipyrine.
Cocaine. Cocaina. Methyl-benzoyl-ecgonine, C17H22NO4, and Cocaine Hydrochloride. Cocainse Hydrochloridum, C17H21NO4.HCI. - (Official.) See page 328.
Eucaine. Eucaina. - The eucaines are synthetic alkaloidal derivatives of triacetonamine and vinyl-diaceton-alkalamine, the former yielding commercial alpha-eucaine hydrochloride, the latter, beta-eucaine hydrochloride, both used as substitutes for cocaine, having the advantage of being less toxic, and aqueous solutions not decomposing on boiling.