1. Viburnum Op'Ulus; Cramp Bark, High Cranberry

Viburnum Op'Ulus; Cramp Bark, High Cranberry. The dried bark (of the stem), official 1890-1910; United States, low grounds, north and west. Handsome perennial shrub, 1.3-3.5 M. (4-12°) high; stem smooth, branched; leaves 3-lobed, dentate; flowers cymes, large, greenish-white; fruit 12 Mm. (J') long, ovoid, red (substitute for cranberries). Bark, nearly flat strips, 20-30 Cm. (8-12') long, 12-18 Mm. (1/2-3/4') broad, .5-2 Mm. (1/50-1/12') thick, grayish, with brown lenticels, wrinkled; inner surface light brown, striate, fracture uneven fibrous; odor slight; taste astringent, bitter; solvents: hot water, alcohol (67 p. a); contains viburnin, valeric acid, resin, tannin, salts, ash 8-9 p. c. Diuretic, tonic, antispasmodic, nervine, astringent - much weaker than V. prunifolium; nervous conditions of pregnancy, abortion preventive, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, ovarian irritation, asthma, hysteria. Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm.; elixir comp., 7.5 p. c. (fldext.), + fldext. of trillium 15, fldext. of aletris 7.5, comp. elixir of taraxacum q. s. 100; tincture comp., 3.5 p. c, + dioscorea 3.5, Scutellaria 1, clove 5, Saigon cinnamon 6.5, glycerin 7.5, alcohol (75 p. c.) q. s. 100, dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)); substitute for Hayden's Viburnum Compound; fluidextract (67 p. c. alcohol), 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)); decoction, infusion, each 5 p. c, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)). V. obova'tum, Small Viburnum, Black Haw, S. United States; shrub 2.4 M. (8°) high, fruit black, leaves broadly obovate, leathery, bitter; also used as antiperiodic.

2. Trios'Teum Perfolia'Tum, Fever Root, Fever-Wort, Horse-Gentian

Trios'Teum Perfolia'Tum, Fever Root, Fever-Wort, Horse-Gentian. The root (rhizome), official 1820-1880; United States. Perennial herb 1-1.3 M. (3-4°) high, hirsute; leaves pubescent beneath, 15 Cm. (6') long; flowers purplish, fruit dry yellow drupe, 12 Mm. (J') long. Root 15-20 Cm. (6-8') long, 15 Mm. (3/5') thick, knotty, brownish-yellow, bitter, nauseous; contains bitter principle, starch. Used as cathartic, emetic, diuretic, substitute for ipecac; in decoction, extract, infusion. Popular with Indians for fevers, amenorrhoea. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).

3. Sambu'Cus Canaden'Sis, Sambucus, Elder

Sambu'Cus Canaden'Sis, Sambucus, Elder. The flowers, official 1820-1900; N. America (damp places). Semi-shrubby perennial, slightly woody, 1.5-3 M. (5-10°) high; stem branching, covered with rough, pitted-gray bark, central pith large, branches smooth; fruit, ovoid drupe, 6 Mm. (') long, red then purplish-black. Flowers, corymbose cymes, cream-white, when dry pale brownish-yellow; odor

Fig. 396.   Viburnum Opulus.

Fig. 396. - Viburnum Opulus.

Fig. 397.   Sambucus canadensis.

Fig. 397. - Sambucus canadensis.

peculiar; taste aromatic, bitter; become worm-eaten unless a preservative (sodium chloride) is added; contain volatile oil .3-.5 p. c, resin, fat, wax, mucilage, tannin. Stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic, sudorific, diuretic, alterative, flavoring; used mostly externally in fomentation, poultice, and ointment; rheumatism, erysipelas, abscesses, etc.; the water for cooling application to the eyes. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.). S. ni'gra. - Europe; tree, 4.5-6 M. (15-20°) high, 10-15 Cm. (4-6') thick, compound cymes smaller than the preceding. S. Eb'ulus, Dwarf Elder. All parts with strong, disagreeable odor, bitterish, acrid taste, the 4-seeded fruit, resembling elderberries; laxative; S. maderen'-sis, Madeira; less aromatic than S. nigra.