Zinci Carbonas Prsecipitatus. Precipitated Zinc Carbonate, 2Zn-CO33Zn(OH)2(?). - (Syn., Zinc. Carl). Praec., Zincum Carbonicum, Carbonas Zincicus; Br. Zinci Carbonas; Fr. Hydrocarbonas Zincicus, Zincum Souscarbonate, Hydrocarbonate de Zinc; Ger. Zinkearbonat, Kohlensaures Zinkoxyd.)
Manufacture: Add slowly a solution of zinc sulphate to a boiling solution of sodium carbonate, constantly stirring, thereby avoiding the formation of normal instead of basic salt, that which is desired - 5(ZnSO4 + 7H2O) + 5(Na2CO3 + 10H2O) = 2ZnC03, 3Zn(OH)2 + 3CO2 + 5Na2SO4 + 82H2O. It is an impalpable, white powder, odorless, tasteless, permanent, insoluble in water, alcohol; soluble in diluted acids with copious effervescence, also in ammonia water, ammonium carbonate T. S.; strongly heated loses water and carbon dioxide, with a yellow residue, becoming white on cooling; it is the basic zinc carbonate of somewhat variable chemical composition, corresponding to 68 p. c. of zinc oxide. Tests: 1. Dissolve 1.5 Gm. in diluted sulphuric acid and distilled water, each 10 Ml. (Cc), after effervescence ceases, filter; a portion with potassium ferrocyanide T. S. - white gelatinous precipitate; a portion with ammonium sulphide T. S. - white precipitate; a portion with ammonium carbonate T. S. - white precipitate, redissolved in excess of reagent. Impurities: Heavy metals, alkali, etc.
Properties and Uses. - Astringent, protective, absorbent, chiefly externally for healing blisters, superficial sores, intertrigo, abrasions; in ointment, which now is substituted for the once popular Turner's cerate, made from impure native carbonate - calamine; may simply dust the powder on inflamed surfaces.
Zinci Oxidum. Zinc Oxide, ZnO. - (Syn., Zinc. Oxid., Flores Zinci, Zinc-white, Nihil Album, Lana Philosophica; Fr. Oxydum Zincicum, Oxyde de Zinc; Ger. Zincum oxydatum (purum), Zinkoxyd, Philoso-phenwolle Zinkblumen.)
Manufacture: Heat precipitated zinc carbonate at 250-280° C. (482-536° F.) until all carbon dioxide and water expelled; the lower the heat the whiter, a red heat giving a yellow tint - 2ZnCO3, 3Zn(OH)2 = 5ZnO + 2CO2 + 3H2O. It is a very fine, amorphous, white, yellowish-white powder, free from gritty particles, odorless, tasteless, gradually absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, insoluble in water, alcohol, soluble without effervescence in dilute acids, ammonia water, ammonium carbonate T. S.; strongly heated - yellow color, disappearing on cooling; contains when freshly ignited, 99 p. c. of pure salt. Tests: 1. Digest 1.3 Gm. in diluted hydrochloric acid and distilled water, each 10 Ml. (Cc); with potassium ferrocyanide T. S. - white, gelatinous precipitate; with ammonium sulphide T. S. - white precipitate. Impurities: Heavy metals, alkali, etc. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-3 Gm.), in pill, ter die.
Preparations. - 1. Unguentum Zinci Oxidi. Ointment of Zinc Oxide. (Syn., Ung. Zinc. Ox., Zinc Ointment, Ointment of Zinc;
Br. Unguentum Zinci; Fr. Unguentura de Nihilo Albo, Pommade d'Oxyde de Zinc, Cerat epulotique; Ger. Unguentum Zinci, Zinksalhe.)
Manufacture: 20 p. c. Rub zinc oxide (free from gritty particles) 20 Gm. with melted benzoinated lard 20 Gm., in a previously warmed container, then incorporate benzoinated lard 60 Gm., previously melted; if necessary strain while warm, stir thoroughly until congealed.
Unoff. Preps.: Glycerogelatinum Zinci Durum, 10 p. c, + glyceri-nated gelatin 30, glycerin 25, dist. water 35. Glycerogelatinum Zinci Molle, 10 p. c, + glycerinated gelatin 20, glycerin 35, dist. water 35. Pasta Zinci, 24 p. c, + salicylic acid 2, starch 24, petrolatum 50. Pasta Zinci Mollis, 25 p. c, + precip. calcium carbonate 25, linseed oil 25, solution of calcium hydroxide 25. Pasti Zinci Sulphurata, 15 p. c, + precip. sulphur 10, purified siliceous earth 5, benzoinated lard 70.
Properties and Uses. - Antispasmodic, astringent, chorea, epilepsy, whooping-cough, gastric and intestinal catarrhs, hysteria, spasmodic asthma, delirium tremens, colliquative sweats, diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes insipidus. Externally - burns, scalds, fissures of nipples or anus, chancroids, intertrigo, ulcers, leucorrhoea, skin eruptions, erysipelas, chronic ophthalmia, cosmetic, paint. Ointment is good form of application, having superseded the old Unguentum Tutiae (tutty) made from impure zinc oxide - tutty (1 in 5).
Zinci Acetas. Zinc Acetate, Zn(C2H3O2)2 + 2H2O. - (Syn., Zinc. Acet.; Fr. Acetas Zincicus, Acetate de Zinc; Ger. Zincum aceticum, Zinkacetat, Essigsaures Zinkoxyd.)
Manufacture: Dissolve zinc oxide (or carbonate) in hot, moderately diluted acetic acid, then filter, evaporate, crystallize - ZnO + 2HC2-H3O2 = Zn(C2H3O2)2 + H2O. It is in soft, white, 6-sided, monoclinic plates, pearly lustre, faintly acetous odor, and (in dilute solutions) astringent, metallic taste, on exposure gradually effloresces losing some acid, soluble in water (2.3), boiling water (1.6), alcohol (30), boiling alcohol (1); aqueous solution neutral, slightly acid; contains 83.16-87.32 p. c. of anhydrous zinc acetate, corresponding to 99.5 p. c. of crystallized salt; when heated partially fuses, losing water and acid; at higher temperature decomposes, evolving inflammable, empyreumatic vapors, with a residue chiefly of zinc oxide. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) with potassium ferrocyanide T. S. - white, gelatinous precipitate; with ammonium sulphide T. S. - white precipitate. 2. Add .1 Gm. to sulphuric acid and alcohol, each 1 Ml. (Cc), warm - ethyl acetate, recognized by odor; aqueous solution with ammonium carbonate T. S. - at first white precipitate, redissolved by excess of reagent. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, etc. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. - Astringent, irritant, emetic; erysipelas, delirium, diarrhoea in typhoid, mostly externally in conjunctivitis, gonorrhoea (1/5-1/2 p. a). The injection is prepared usually by adding zinc sulphate and lead acetate, each gr. 12 (.8 Gm.) to water ℥ viij
(240 Ml. (Cc.)), which by double decomposition gives zinc acetate in solution and lead sulphate precipitated, this latter being most excellent for sheathing inflamed parts.
Zinci Phenolsulphonas. Zinc Phenolsulphonate, Zn(C6H5O4S)2 + 8H2O. - (Syn., Zinc. Phenolsulph., Zinc Sulphocarbolate, Zinci Sulpho-carbolas, Zinc Phenol-para-sulphonate; Fr. Zinc Phenolsulfonique; Ger. Phenolsulfosaures Zink.)
Manufacture: Heat for 6 hours equal weights of phenol and sulphuric acid, neutralize with barium carbonate, now double decompose this solution of barium phenolsulphonate with solution of zinc sulphate, evaporate, crystallize. It is in colorless, transparent, rhombic prisms, tabular crystals, granules, odorless, astringent, metallic taste, effloresces on exposure to air and light, becoming slightly pink; soluble in water (1.6), boiling water (.4), alcohol (1.8); aqueous solution (1 in 10) acid; heated to 125° C. (257° F.) loses all water of crystallization; at higher temperature chars, emitting inflammable vapors with odor of phenol, and an incombustible residue; contains 73.7-77.4 p. c. of anhydrous zinc phenolsulphonate, corresponding to 99.5 p. c. of the crystallized salt. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) with potassium ferrocyanide T. S. - white, gelatinous precipitate; with ammonium sulphide T. S. - white precipitate; with ammonium carbonate T. S. - white precipitate, redissolved in excess of reagent. 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 100) with ferric chloride T. S. - pale violet color. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, sulphate. Should be kept in small, well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.).
Properties and Uses. - Chiefly as a substitute for phenol (carbolic acid) - externally; antiseptic, astringent, stimulant for foul ulcers, mucous membrane inflammations, to prevent septicaemia in surgical operations (1-5 p. c. solution); gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, etc. (injection, 1-5 in 1000).
Zinci Stearas. Zinc Stearate. - (Syn., Zinc. Stear.; Fr. Stearate de Zinc, Zinc Stearate; Ger. Zinkstearat.)
Manufacture: By mutual decomposition between zinc acetate (100) or sulphate (131) and sodium stearate (279), both salts being dissolved previously in boiling water, wash precipitate with hot water, dry, pulverize. It is a fine, white, bulky powder, tasteless, faint, characteristic odor, insoluble in water, alcohol, ether; neutral; when heated fuses; at higher temperature decomposes, emitting inflammable vapors with odor of burning fat, with a residue chiefly of zinc oxide; contains a small variable amount of palmitic acid, and zinc corresponding to 13-15.5 p. c. of zinc oxide. Tests: 1. Heat 1 Gm. with a mixture of distilled water 25 Ml. (Cc.) and hydrochloric acid 5 Ml. (Cc.) - stearic acid liberated, floating on surface as an oily layer. Impurities: Alkalies, alkali earths.
Preparation. - (Unoff.): Unguentum Zinci Stearatis, official 1900-1910 - 50 p. c, + white petrolatum 50.
Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic, astringent; gonorrhoea, atrophic rhinitis; apply in substance or combined with iodol, iodoformogen, or europhen (25 p. c).
1. Zinci Bromidum. Zinc Bromide, ZnBr2, official 1880-1910. - Obtained by digesting granulated zinc in hydrobromic acid, evaporating, drying - Zn + 2HBr = ZnBr2 + H2; or digest zinc, bromine, and water together, evaporate. It is a white granular powder, odorless, taste sharp, saline, metallic, very deliquescent, soluble in water, alcohol; contains, when anhydrous, 97 p. c. of pure salt. Impurities: Lead, copper, cadmium, arsenic, chloride, iodide, sulphate. Antispasmodic, hypnotic, nervine, tonic, irritant poison; epilepsy. Should be kept in small, glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-2 Gm.).
2. Zinci lodidum. Zinc Iodide, Znl, official 1880-1910. - Obtained by dissolving zinc oxide, carbonate, or metal, in hydriodic acid; or digest metal with iodine and water, evaporate to dryness - (1) Zn + 2HI = Znl2 + H2. (2) Zn + I2 + H2O - Znl2 + H2O. It is a white granular powder, odorless, sharp, saline, metallic taste, very deliquescent, on exposure turning brown from liberated iodine, soluble in water, alcohol, ether, heated leaves residue of zinc oxide; contains when anhydrous, 98 p. c. of pure salt. Alterative, astringent, caustic; chorea, scrofula, hysteria. Externally - similar to chloride in enlarged tonsils, tumors, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea; applied as ointment 10 p. c, or solution 2-5 p. c, or injection 1/5-1/2 p. c. Impurities: Lead, copper, cadmium, arsenic, chloride, sulphate. Should be kept dark, in small, glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 .Gm.), in solution or syrup.
3. Zinci Carbonas Impurus, Lapis Calaminaris. Calamine, official 1830-1860. Calamina Praeparata - calcined zinc carbonate; Unguentum Calaminae, 17 p. c, + ointment 83.
4. Zinci Oxidum Impurum. Tutty, Tuttia, official 1830-1840.
5. Zinci Phosphidum. Zinc Phosphide, Zn3P2, official 1880-1900. - Obtained by fusing zinc and phosphorus; or pass phosphorus vapors in a current of dry hydrogen over fused zinc - 3Zn + 2P + heat = Zn3P2. It contains 25 p. c. of phosphorus, and is a gritty, dark gray powder, or in crystalline fragments of dark metallic lustre, faint odor, phosphorus taste, insoluble in water, alcohol, soluble in diluted acids. Nervous stimulant, aphrodisiac, similar to phosphorus; defective nutrition of brain and spine, locomotor ataxia, paralysis, chlorosis, anaemia, amenorrhoea, etc. Should be kept in small, glass-stoppered vials. Dose, gr. 1/16-1/3 (.004-.02 Gm.), in pill, powder, syrup, on empty stomach.