Zingiber Zerum'Bet. Java (rhizome fleshy, spongy, ginger odor and taste), and Z. Cassumu'nar. - India (root 5 Cm.; 2' long, fleshy radicles, white tubers, scaly, brown; odor and taste camphora-ceous).
Cur'Cuma Lon'Ga, Turmeric. The rhizome, official 1820-1880; S. Asia, Indian Ocean Islands. Plant is a perennial; leaves radical, 1 M. (3°) long, lanceolate; flower-scape short, spike 15 Cm. (6') long, flowers orange-yellow, in pairs; rhizome 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 12 Mm. (1/2' thick (long turmeric) to 18-25 Mm. (3/4-1') thick (round turmeric), sometimes in sections, yellowish-gray, annulate, inside orange-yellow, fracture resinous; odor ginger-like; taste warm, aromatic; contains volatile oil 1 p. c, viscid oil 11 p. c, pungent resin, curcumin (coloring matter) .3 p. c, starch, ash 5-7 p. c. Powder deep yellow, brownish-red by alkalies or borax. There are several varieties:
1, Madras (best, bright yellow, often in cut pieces - Pubna preferred);
2, Bengal (reddish, mostly round); 3, Java (reddish-gray); 4, Chinese (often branched); 5, Cochin (possibly from C. viridiflo'ra). Used as stimulant, tonic, aromatic, condiment, for jaundice, and as ginger; tincture, 15 p. c. (diluted alcohol) for coloring ointments, solutions, etc.
3. C. Zedoa'ria, Zedoary. - India. Rhizome (tuber) occurs as long and round, varying in size, 12-37.5 Mm. (1/2-1 1/2') long, usually met with in circular disks, 12-37.5 Mm. (1/2 - 1 1/2') broad, 4-16 Mm. (1/6-2/3) thick; it is orange-brown, internally pale, reddish-gray-brown, with many brownish resin-cells and lighter colored wood-bundles; fracture short, mealy; odor and taste ginger-like; contains volatile oil .5-1 p. c,
Fig. 69. - Ginger starch granules: magnified 250 diam.
Fig. 70. - Turmeric rhizome and stem.
resin (pungent taste), starch, mucilage; weaker than ginger. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); bitter tincture, 25 p. c, + aloes 12.5, etc.
Alpin'Ia Officina'Rum, Galanga (Galangal). China. Rhizome cylindrical, branched, 5 Cm. (2') long, 15 Mm. (3/5') thick, annulate from leaf-sheaths, rust-brown, fracture short, fibrous, inside yellowish, with many brownish
Fig. 71. - Curcuma starch.
Fig. 72. - Galanga.
resin-cells, scattered wood-bundles; odor and taste ginger-like; contains volatile oil .5 p. c., resin, gum, bassorin, fat, galangol, galangin, kaempferid, alpinin, starch 23 p. c. Used like ginger in same dose.