In early stages even of acute tonsillitis, insufflation of very finely-powdered alum, or warm, weak alum gargles will often assist in cutting short the attack, but if this be fully developed before treatment is commenced, alum would be more likely to irritate than to relieve: its use is better reserved for chronic congested conditions, with or without spots of ulceration, when the fine powder should be gently blown over the affected part through a quill or suitable tube.

In Purulent Ophthalmia, as occurring especially in children, an alum lotion containing 4 to 6 gr. to the ounce is very useful when properly applied: it should be used very frequently, every half-hour or hour, in a gentle stream, so as to thoroughly cleanse the lids, and in addition drops of a weak solution of nitrate of silver may be required once daily: this method is the most relied upon at the London Ophthalmic Hospital (Medical Times, ii., 1873).

In Gonorrhoeal Ophthalmia, and in the severe ophthalmiae of Egypt and India, similar frequent use of alum lotions is also serviceable. My colleague, Mr. Macnamara, has seen cases cured in the latter country by applying round the orbit a mixture of burnt alum with lemon-juice.

In Catarrhal Conjunctivitis and Chemosis, a convenient and useful application is the alum curd, made with boiling milk, or the alum "poultice," prepared by rubbing a little of the powder with white of egg till a coagulum is formed; this is placed between two layers of thin cambric and applied over the closed lids.