Characters. - Dense heavy billets, outwardly dark brown, internally variegated with dark and tighter red rings, if cut transversely. Powder blood-red, of a faint peculiar odour, and an obscurely astringent taste. Also chips of the same.

Substances resembling Sandal Wood: Logwood, less dense.

Composition. - Red sandal wood contains a blood-red crystalline principle, santalic acid, or santalin, insoluble in water.

Red Sandal Wood is contained in Tinctura Lavandulae Coni-posita.

Use

Red sandal wood is used only to give colour to the Compound Tincture of Lavender.

Kino - Kino. - The inspissated juice obtained from incisions made in the trunk of Pterocarpus Marsupium. Imported from Malabar.

Characters. - In small angular brittle glistening reddish-black fragments, translucent and ruby-red on the edges inodorous, very astringent. When chewed it tinges the saliva blood-red.

Composition. - Kino contains 75 percent of kino-tannic acid C18H18O8, giving a greenish precipitate with persalts of iron; brenzcatechin, a derivate of catechin (see Catechu Pallidum, page 270); and kino-red, formed from kino-tannic acid by oxydation.

Dose. - 10 to 30 gr.

Preparations.

1. Pulvis Kino Compositus

Pulvis Kino Compositus. Kino, 15; opium, 1; cinnamon 4 (1 of opium in 20). Dose, 5 to 20 gr.

2. Tinctura Kino

Tinctura Kino. 1 to 10. Dose, 1/2 to 2 fl.dr.

Kino is also a constituent of Pulvis Catechu Compositus, 1 in 5.

Action And Uses

Kino closely resembles tannic acid in its action, and may be used for the same purposes. (See page 337.) It is chiefly employed in the form of astringent gargles, and as a constituent of mixtures for diarrhoea.

Balsamum Peruvianum - Balsam of Peru. - A balsam obtained from Myroxylon Pereirae. It exudes from the trunk of the tree after the bark has been scorched and removed. From Salvador in Central America.

Characters. - A reddish-brown or nearly black liquid, translucent in thin films; having the consistence of syrup, a balsamic odour, and an acrid slightly bitter taste; soluble in five parts of rectified spirit. Undergoes no diminution in volume when mixed with water.

Impurity. - Resin, soluble in bisulphide of carbon.

Composition. - Balsam of Peru is a complex substance. The greater part consist of (1) the volatile oil of Peruvian balsam, which is itself composed of cinnamin (or cinnamate of benzyl-oether), C16H14O2; styracin (or cinnamate of chinamic-ather), C18Hl6O3; peruvin (or benzyl-alcohol), C7H8O; benzoate of benzyl aether; (2) cinnamic and benzoic acids in small quantities; and (3) a mixture of resins, probably hydrates of cinnamin. See Styrax.

Dose. - 10 to 15 minims, made into an emulsion with mucilage or yolk of egg.

Action And Uses. 1. Immediate Local Action And Uses

Externally. - Balsam of Peru possesses the properties of its several constituents - benzoic acid and its allies and resins, being an antiseptic and disinfectant, a vascular and nutritive stimulant, and a nervine sedative. (See Terebinthinae Oleum for a full account, page 344.) Balsams have been used from time immemorial as applications to wounds and sores, but are now almost entirely displaced by simpler dressings, such as carbolic acid and boracic acid. They are still used, however, to cleanse bed-sores. A more important application of Peruvian balsam is in certain diseases of the skin, namely, (1) in some chronic inflammatory affections (eczema); (2) to relieve itching, prurigo, urticaria, etc., 1 in 8 of vasolin; (3) in scabies, for which it is the best of all remedies, killing the acarus, relieving the itching and inflammation, and disinfecting the parts. The skin should be thoroughly rubbed with it (1 drachm for the whole body) on two or more occasions, a warm bath being taken before and after.

Internally. - Balsam of Peru has a mild carminative effect on the stomach and bowels, like volatile oils.

2. Action On The Blood, 8pecific And Remote Local Action And Uses

The important changes undergone in the blood and tissues by benzoic and cinnamic acids, and the excretion of these and of aromatic oils by the mucous membranes, kidneys, and skin, are fully discussed under Benzoin, Styrax, and Terebinthinae Oleum. The constituents of Peruvian balsam appear chiefly to affect the respiratory organs; and it may therefore be added to cough mixtures as an agreeable stimulant and disinfectant expectorant in chronic bronchitis.

Balsamum Tolutanum - Balsam of Tolu. - A balsam obtained from Myroxylon Toluifera. It exudes from the trunk of the tree after incisions have been made into the bark. From New Granada.

Characters. - A reddish-yellow soft and tenacious solid, becoming hard by keeping, with a fragrant balsamic odour; soluble in rectified spirit.

Composition. - Balsam of Tolu contains a turpentine C10H16, benzoic and cinnamic acids, and various resins.

Dose. - 10 to 20 gr., as an emulsion with mucilage and sugar.

Preparations.

1. Svrupus Tolutanus

Svrupus Tolutanus. 1 in 29. Dose, 1 to 2 fl. dr.

2. Tinctura Tolutana

Tinctura Tolutana. 1 in 8. Dose, 15 to 30 min.

Balsam of Tolu is also a constituent of Tinctura Benzoini Composita.

Action And Uses

These are the same as those of Peruvian balsam, but tolu is used internally only, and chiefly as a pleasant ingredient of cough mixtures.