This section is from the book "A Text-Book Of Pharmacology, Therapeutics And Materia Medica", by T. Lauder Brunton. Also available from Amazon: A text-book of pharmacology, therapeutics and materia medica.
A liquid, colourless or with a yellowish tinge, and a strong empyreumatic odour. Specific gravity, 1.071.
Reactions. - It coagulates albumin. A slip of deal dipped into it, and afterwards into hydrochloric acid, acquires on exposure for a short time to the air a greenish-blue colour. Dropped on white filtering paper and exposed to a heat of 212° F., it leaves no translucent stain. It turns the plane of polarisation of a ray of polarised light to the right. It is not solidified by the cold produced by a mixture of hydrochloric acid and sulphate of sodium.
Dose. - 1 to 3 drops.
Mistura Creasoti (1 min. in 1 fl.
1-2 fl. oz.
Unguentum Creasoti (with simple ointment, 1 part in 9)..............................
1-4 fl. dr.
U.S.P. Aqua Creasoti. Creasote Water. Creasote, 1; distilled water, 99; agitate and filter.
B.P. Mistura Creasoti. Creasote Mixture.
Take of creasote 1 part, glacial acetic acid 1 part, spirit of juniper 2 parts, syrup 32 parts, distilled water 480 parts.
B.P. Vapor Creasoti. Inhalation of Creasote.
Mix creasote (12 min.) and water (8 fl. oz.) in an apparatus so arranged that air may be made to pass through the solution, and may afterwards be inhaled.
Action. - Creasote destroys low vegetable organisms, and prevents the fermentation which they cause. When administered to small animals, it causes great dyspnoea, weakening of the heart's action, paralysis, and often sudden death. Its action differs from that of carbolic acid in the absence of convulsions and in causing increased coagulability of the blood.
Creasote is a powerful muscular poison. It coagulates albupin and blood. When applied to the skin it destroys the epithelium, and has a similar action upon mucous membranes.
In the mouth it produces a burning sensation and much saliation. Large doses taken internally cause nausea, vomiting, olicky pains, and diarrhoea. The pulse is quickened, there is dddiness and headache, the respiration is slow and laboured, nd the secretion of urine is increased.
Uses. - It is often employed as a remedy in toothache, a mall pledget of cotton wool being dipped into it and placed in the cavity of the decayed tooth. Care should be taken to cover this with fresh cotton wool, to prevent the tongue from being burned. Internally, it is given in cases of vomiting depending upon abnormal processes of fermentation in the stomach, and it is said to relieve vomiting due to other causes, such as ulceration of the stomach, cancer, Blight's disease, sea-sickness, and pregnancy. It is useful in diarrhoea, especially that of children, where the diarrhoea depends upon irritation due to abnormal fermentation-23rocesses in the intestinal contents. The vapour is used in phthisis and foetid bronchitis.
Resorcin. C6H4(OH)2 (l:3). Meta-di-hydroxy-benzene (vide-p. 809). Not officinal.
Dose. - 5-30 grs. (0.3-2 gm.). It is best given with syrup of oranges and freely diluted.
Action. - It is a powerful antiseptic. It coagulates albumin. A saturated solution has a caustic action on the skin, but a weak solution - e.g. 5 per cent. - is not irritating to the skin or mucous membranes. In frogs it produces stupor, collapse, clonic spasms, and dyspnoea like carbolic acid. In warmblooded animals it also causes clonic convulsions, dyspnoea, dilatation of the vessels and increased secretion of saliva and tears. Death occurs through paralysis. Large doses in man - 30 grs. or more - cause giddiness, singing in the ears, symptoms of intoxication, like those of alcohol, convulsive tremors and collapse. In febrile conditions it greatly lowers the temperature.
Uses. - It is a powerful antiseptic and has been employed locally in diphtheria. A 5 per cent. solution has been used as an application to syphilitic sores and skin diseases, and as an injection into the bladder in cystitis. It appears to shorten the duration of facial erysipelas when applied every four hours, in the form of a 25 per cent, ointment made with vaseline. A 1 per cent. solution has been used as a collyrium. In infantile cholera it has proved very useful in doses of 1 1/2-5 grains (0.1-0.3 gm.), given in infusion of chamomile. Doses of 5 grains three times a day before meals are useful in preventing fermentation in the stomach. As an antipyretic it lessens the temperature in phthisis and in typhoid, to a less extent in pneumonia and erysipelas. It has also been used in ague.
Its disadvantages are the profuse perspiration which it produces, the short duration of its antipyretic action, and the rapidity with which the temperature again rises.
Hydroquinone. C6H4(OH)2(l: 4). Para-di-hydroxy-benzene (p. 809). Not officinal.
Characters. - In crystals or plates with a slight sweetish taste. Action. - Like that of resorcin, but about four times stronger. Uses. - Similar to those of resorcin.
Pyrocatechin. C6H4(OH)2(l : 2). Ortho-di-hydroxy-benzene
(p. 809). Not officinal.
Characters. - It forms crystals or plates.
Solubility. - It is readily soluble m water, alcohol, and ether. Reaction. - It reduces cupric sulphate.
Action. - Like that of resorcin, but it is about three times stronger.
Uses. - Like those of resorcin.
Preparation. - By heating gallic acid.
Solubility. - Readily soluble in water and alcohol.
Reaction. - It rapidly combines with oxygen, becoming dark in colour.
Dose. - 1/2 to 1 1/2 gr.
Action. - It has a doubtful antiseptic action. In mammals it decomposes the red blood-corpuscles, causing brownish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes, thrombosis in the veins, haemorrhagic infarcts in the kidneys and methaemo-globin or blood in the urine. In man the symptoms of poisoning come on rapidly, with headache, vomiting, purging, and collapse.
Uses. - Pyrogallol is chiefly used externally in skin diseases. A 20 per cent. ointment has been used as a caustic in lupus, cancer, and chancres. It appears to destroy the diseased part without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue. In place of the ointment, a 20 per cent. powder with starch may be used. As soon as the wound granulates it is dressed with iodoform : the pain is short and moderate, and no danger is to be apprehended from absorption.1 In lupus erythematosus, a 10 per cent. ointment may be applied twice daily for three or four days, antiseptics being afterwards used. An ointment of similar strength and similarly applied is of great service in patches of psoriasis, especially of the face and hands. It does not, like chrysarobin, stain linen; but the risk of absorption must be considered, as haemoglobinuria has followed its application to large surfaces of the body. It is useful in tylosis of the palms and soles, and a 2 per cent. alcoholic solution may be painted with beneficial result over large tubercles in acne rosacea, after poulticing.
Internally it has been given in haemorrhage.