Pustulants are employed for the purpose of keeping up a continuous moderate irritation in chronic inflammations : tartar emetic ointment, and croton-oil liniment, seem sometimes to be of considerable advantage in chronic inflammation of joints or synovial membranes, in chronic bronchitis and in pleurisy; perhaps sometimes in phthisis. They have been used also as an application to the spine in paralysis and hysteria, and to the head in tubercular meningitis, and to the nape of the neck in chronic headache or giddiness. They were much employed formerly, but of late years iodine liniment or small blisters have to a great extent taken their place.