The refined sugar of Saccharum officinarum. West Indies and other tropical countries.

Characters. - Compact crystalline conical loaves, known in commerce as lump sugar.

Impurities. - Salts, foreign matters.

Tests. - U.S.P. White, dry, hard, distinctly crystalline granules, permanent in the air, odourless, having a purely sweet taste, and a neutral reaction. Soluble in 0.5 part of water, and in 175 parts of alcohol at 15° C. (59° F.); in 0.2 part of boiling water, and in 28 parts of boiling alcohol; also in 80 parts of boiling, absolute alcohol, but insoluble in ether. The aqueous solution, saturated at 15° C. (59° F.), has the specific gravity 1.345, and is miscible with alcohol in all proportions.

Neither an aqueous nor an alcoholic solution of sugar, kept in large, well-closed, and completely filled bottles, should deposit a sediment on prolonged standing (absence of insoluble salts, foreign matters, ultramarine, Prussian blue, &c). If a portion of about 1 gm. of sugar be dissolved in 10 c.c. of boiling water, then mixed with 4 or 5 drops of test-solution of nitrate of silver and about 2 c.c. of water of ammonia, and quickly heated until the liquid begins to boil, not more than a slight coloration, but no black precipitate, should appear in the liquid after standing at rest for five minutes (absence of grape-sugar and of more than a slight amount of invert sugar).

Use. - To mask the taste of disagreeable remedies. It is used as a vehicle, corrigent, preservative, and antiseptic. Syrups have the advantage of protecting the active ingredients against fermentation, and certain ferruginous preparations against oxidation.

Preparations.

B.P

Confectio Rosae Caninae.

,, „ Gallicae.

,, Sennas. Ferri Carbonas Saceharata. Liquor Calcis Saccharatus. Mistura Ferri Composita. „ Guaiaci.

Mistura Spiritus Vini Gallici. Pilula Ferri Iodidi (p. 522). Pulvis Cretas Aromaticus.

„ Amygdalae Compositus.

TragacanthaeSodii Citro-tartras Effervescens. All the Syrups and Lozenges.

U.S.P

Pilulae Ferri Carbonatis (p. 523).

„ „ Iodidi. Ferri Carbonas Saccharatus. Mistura Ferri Composita.

Pulvis Cretae Compositus.

Glycyrrhizae Compositus. Troches, Syrups, Compound Syrups, etc.