Opium, 10; nutmeg, 3; extracted with diluted acetic acid by maceration and percolation up to 80 parts of liquid; then sugar, 20, is added.

U.S.P. Opium Denarcotisatum. Denarcotised Opium. - Prepared by removing narcotine and odorous principles by extraction with stronger ether, and adding sufficient sugar of milk to make up the weight to that of opium containing 14 per cent. of morphine.

U.S.P. Tinctura Opii Deodorata. Deodorised Tincture of Opium. - Macerate opium, 10, with water, 40, evaporate down to 10, shake with ether, 20, pour off the ether, and evaporate until the whole of the ether is gone. Mix with water, 50, filter, adding water up to 80, then add alcohol, 20.

U.S.P. Tinctura Ipecacuanhae et Opii. Tincture of Ipecac and Opium. - Deodorised tincture of opium, 100, evaporated to 85, then fluid extract of ipecac, 10, is added, the mixture filtered, and diluted alcohol added up to 100.

U.S.P. Tinctura Opii Camphorata. Camphorated Tincture of Opium. - Powdered opium, 4; benzoic acid, 4; camphor, 4; oil of anise, 4; glycerine, 40; diluted alcohol up to 1,000.

U.S.P. Vinum Opii. Wine of Opium. - Powdered opium, 10; cinnamon, 1; cloves, 1; stronger white wine up to 100.

Composition of Opium. - Besides the usual constituents of vegetable products, such as mucilage, albumin, pectinous substances, caoutchouc-like substances, fat, volatile substances, some sugar, salts of ammonium, calcium, and magnesium, opium contains seventeen or eighteen alkaloids and two neutral substances, as well as a peculiar acid - meconic acid. The alkaloids are chiefly combined with meconic acid or sulphuric acid, but may be partly free. The three most important alkaloids are morphine, codeine, and thebaine. The others are papaverine, pseudomorphine or oxymorphine, gnoscopine, codamine, laudanine, laudanosine, meconidine, lanthopine, protopine, cryptopine, narcotine, oxy-narcotine, hydroctarnine, narceine, rhoeadine. The neutral substances are meconin and meconiasin. Some at least of the alkaloids in opium may be regarded as derivatives from morphine. Thus codeine and pseudomorphine or oxymorphine can be produced from morphine artificially.

Besides the derivatives of morphine found naturally in opium, various series of alkaloids can be artificially prepared from morphine by (a) the addition of alcohol radicals, or by (b) oxidation, or (c) by dehydration. To the series of alkaloids produced from morphine by the addition of alcohol radicals, the name of codeines has been given. An example of these is codethyline, obtained from morphine by the introduction of ether. Among the alkaloids produced by oxidation are oxymorphine and oxydi-morphine. Apomorphine is produced by dehydration.