Preparation Of Ammonium Salts

Is prepared

From

By

Ammonium Chloride, B. and U.S.P.

Gas liquor . .

Adding hydrochloric acid and subliming in iron pots covered with leaden domes; or by adding sulphuric acid, and subliming the ammonium sulphate with sodium chloride in the same way.

Ammonium Sulphate, U.S.P.

Ditto . .

Adding sulphuric acid and subliming.

Liquor Ammonias fortior, B.P.; Aqua Ammonias fortior, U.S.P.

Ammonium chloride, or sulphate

Heating with lime, and saturating a quantity of water with the gaseous ammonia (NH3) given off: 2NH4C1 + Ca(OH)2 = CaCl2 + 2NH3 + 2H2O.

Liquor Ammonias, B.P.; Aqua Ammonias, U.S.P.

Ditto . .

Is simply liquor ammonias fortior diluted with 2 parts of water.

Ammonium Carbonate, B. and U.S.P.

Ditto . .

Subliming with calcium carbonate.

Ammonium Valerianate, U.S.P.

Ditto . .

Mixing with lime and neutralising valerianic acid with the ammonia given off.

Ammonium Iodide, U.S.P.

Ammonium sulphate

Decomposing by potassium iodide, precipitating potassium sulphate by alcohol, filtering, and evaporating.

Ammonium Bromide, B. and U.S.P.

Ditto .

Same process as for iodide, substituting bromide for iodide of potassium. Or by neutralising hydrobromic acid with ammonia.

Liquor Ammonii Aee-tatis, B. and U.S.P.1

Ammonium carbonate

Neutralising with acetic acid.

Spiritus Ammonias Aromaticus, B. and U.S.P.

Ammonium carbonate and liquor ammonias

Distilling with volatile oil of nutmeg, oil of lemon, rectified spirit, and water, B.P. Oil of lemon, of lavender flowers, and of pimenta are the flavouring agents, U.S.P.

Liquor Ammonii Ci-tratis Fortior, B.P.

Liquor ammonias fortior

Neutralising with citric acid. It would be better prepared by neutralising ammonium carbonate with citric acid.

Liquor Ammonias Ci-tratis, B.P.

Liquor ammonii ci-tratis

By diluting with water five times.

Ammonium Phosphate, B. and U.S.P.

Liquor ammonias .

Neutralising with phosphoric acid.

Ammonium Sulphide

Ditto .

Saturating with hydrogen sulphide.

Ammonium Nitrate, B. and U.S.P.

Liquor ammonias or carbonate

Neutralising with dilute nitric acid, evaporating and fusing.

General Action of Ammonium Salts. - This has already been described, as well as the modifications induced in it by different acid radicals (p. 602). The tetanus produced by ammonia and ammonium chloride is due to their action on the spinal cord, and not on cerebral centres, for it persists, like that of strychnine, after section of the cord. The paralysing action of ammonium chloride on the muscles modifies the tetanus, in so far that after the first spasm, irritation applied to the skin does not cause tetanic convulsions, but only a single reflex twitch. This effect is usually ascribed to the paralysing action on the motor nerves, but it seems really to be due to an affection of the muscles (Fig. 167), as well as to a disturbance of the relation between the muscle and motor nerve. Amylamine, which is a compound ammonia, has a paralysing action on muscle similar to ammonia, as shown in Fig. 168. When a muscle has been poisoned by some ammonium salt, a single stimulation applied to the nerve causes a strong contraction like that of an unpoisoned muscle; but a second stimulus has sometimes little or no action, and when the muscle is stimulated directly it soon becomes exhausted. Ammonia is a powerful muscular irritant, causing contraction and subsequent rigor mortis when applied directly to voluntary muscle.

1 Liquor ammonii acetatis fortior, B.P., is made from the carbonate, and liquor ammonii acetatis is prepared by diluting the strong solution with water.

Preparation Of Ammonium Salts 224

Fig. 167. - Tetanus-tracing to show the paralysing action of ammonium sulphate on muscle. The first contraction of the poisoned muscle is nearly as great as that of the unpoisoned one, but it soon becomes exhausted, and the curve rapidly falls during the continuance of the stimulation, while that of the normal muscle rather rises.

Fig. 168.   Tetanus tracing to show the paralysing action of amylamine on muscle. Cf. Fig. 167.

Fig. 168. - Tetanus-tracing to show the paralysing action of amylamine on muscle. Cf. Fig. 167.

Ammonium salts are said to increase the secretion of the mucous glands of the bronchi and of the intestine, as well as that of the sweat-glands and of the kidneys. Ammonia appears to be converted almost entirely into urea in the blood of mammals, but in birds it is converted into uric acid.1

1 Schroder, quoted by Kmerin, Ztschr. f. Biol., xxi. p. 76.

It increases the formation of glycogen in the liver.1 Neither ammonia, nor its carbonate, nor its salts with organic acids diminish, but rather increase the acidity of the urine, and in this ammonia differs from potash, soda, and lithia.