Sulphate of morphine, 1; camphor, 20; glycyrrhiza, 20; precipitated carbonate of calcium, 20; alcohol, q.s. to mix the camphor intimately with the other ingredients. It is intended as a substitute for Dover's powder.

Apomorphinae Hydrochloras, B. and U.S.P. Hydrochlorate of Apomorphine. C17H17NO2HC1; 303.4. - The hydrochlorate of an artificial alkaloid prepared from morphine. It should be kept in small, well-stoppered vials, in a dark place.

Preparation. - By heating morphine or codeine in sealed tubes with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

Characters. - Small, greyish-white, shining, acicular crystals, turning green on exposure to light and air, inodorous, with a very faint acid reaction on moistened litmus-paper.

Solubility. - Soluble in thirty-five parts of alcohol, the solutions being decomposed with production of a green colour when they are boiled.

Reactions. - From solutions, bicarbonate of sodium throws down a precipitate which becomes green on standing and then forms a purple solution with ether, violet with chloroform, and bluish-green with alcohol. With dilute solution of perchloride of iron it gives a deep red and with nitric acid a blood-red coloration.

1 The possibility of morphine being transformed into apomorphine by long keeping in solution should be remembered. A 3 per cent. solution of hydrochlorate of morphine, which was hypnotic when freshly prepared, became partly converted into apomorphine after being kept for eleven months, and then produced violent vomiting. - Brit. Med. Journ., June 26, 1886, p. 1222.

B.P. Preparation.

Injectio Apomorphinae Hypodermica. - (2 grains dissolved in 100 minims of camphor-water and filtered. It should be made as required for use.)

Dose - 1/10-1/5 grain (.006-.012 gm.), or 2-8 minims of the B.P. injection, hypodermically as emetic.

Action. - When given internally or injected hypodermically apomorphine acts as an emetic, producing nausea and vomiting in from five to twenty minutes. After vomiting has occurred the nausea usually disappears quickly. It usually produces less depression than tartar emetic, but collapse has occurred from its use in children. It probably causes vomiting, partly reflexly and partly directly, in the same way as tartar emetic (p. 373). It stimulates the motor centres in the brain and the respiratory and vomiting centres in the medulla, and afterwards paralyses them.

In rabbits, which cannot vomit, apomorphine causes constant movement, rapid breathing, convulsions, paralysis, and death. In cats and dogs small doses cause vomiting, while large doses do not, but produce manege movements and paralysis; some degree of inco-ordination of gait may be observed in man after a large dose.

It paralyses muscular fibre, voluntary and involuntary, but does not affect motor or sensory nerves. The pulse is at first quickened, while the blood-pressure is unaltered; but large doses paralyse the heart. The secretion of bronchial mucus is increased (p. 253).

Uses. - It is used as an emetic for the purposes already mentioned (p. 374). Its special advantages are the readiness with which it can be administered by hypodermic injection without causing any local irritation and the short duration of the nausea it occasions. It is useful also as an expectorant, alone or along with morphine (p. 250).