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A Text-Book Of Materia Medica, Pharmacology And Therapeutics | by George F. Butler



The present work has been undertaken with the immediate object of supplying the student of medicine with a clear, concise, and practical text-book, adapted for permanent reference no less than for the requirements of the class-room. The arrangement - embodying the synthetic classification of drugs based upon therapeutic affinities - the author believes to be at once the most philosophical and rational, as well as that best calculated to engage the interest of those to whom the academic study of the subject is wont to offer no little perplexity.

TitleA Text-Book Of Materia Medica, Pharmacology And Therapeutics
AuthorGeorge F. Butler
PublisherW. B. Saunders Company
Year1908
Copyright1908, W. B. Saunders Company
AmazonA text-book of materia medica, pharmacology and therapeutics

By George F. Butler, A.M., Ph.G., M.D.

Professor and Head of the Department of Therapeutics and Professor of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery, Medical Department Valparaiso University; Physician to Frances E. Willard Hospital, etc.

Sixth Edition, thoroughly Revised anf Enlarged

And adapted to the Eighth Revision (1905) of the U.S. pharmacopoeia Philadelphia And London

Authority To Use For Comment The Pharmacopoeia Of The United States Of America. Eighth Decennial. Revision. In This Volume, Has Been Granted By The Board Of Trustees Of The United states Pharmacoroeial_convention.

Which board of trustees is in no way responsible for the accuracy of any translations of the offic ial. weights and measures, or for any state-ments as to strength of official. preparations printed in america pre8s of w. b. saunders company philadelphia to the medical students of the united states, in the hope that it may aid them in attaining a correct knowledge of the nature and action of drugs and the rational treatment of disease, this work is cordially inscribed by the author.

-Preface To Sixth Edition
I would be unappreciative if I failed to take this opportunity to express my gratification at the continued popularity of this Text-book, as shown by the necessity for the publication of another editi...
-Preface
The present work has been undertaken with the immediate object of supplying the student of medicine with a clear, concise, and practical text-book, adapted for permanent reference no less than for the...
-Introduction
The history of medicine since the earliest times is the record of a more or less continuous series of experimental researches, having for their paramount object a precise and comprehensive knowledge o...
-Pharmacology And General Therapeutics
Nature heals, physicians treat - is a truth of old that is constantly forgotten: always by the patient, who expects the patent medicine or the family doctor to cure her; frequently by the physician, w...
-Pharmacology And General Therapeutics. Part 2
Pharmacognosy is a division of materia medica, and includes the technical study of the crude materials from which drugs are derived. Its deliberation is limited to the animal and the vegetable kingdom...
-Pharmacology And General Therapeutics. Part 3
Of the various forms of suggestive treatment it is not necessary here to treat. One form, treatment by hypnosis, is worthy of careful study, but its details are out of place here. Heliotherapy, exp...
-Pharmacology And General Therapeutics. Part 4
Pharmacotherapy. - This includes the study of remedial agents proper or the use of drug substances. It considers the applications of the teachings of pharmacology to the treatment of abnormal body sta...
-Pharmacology And General Therapeutics. Part 5
In the animal body many salts are found in solution, not as complete molecules, but as made up of their electrical components, or ions, one positive and another negative, and when a chemical action ta...
-Pharmacology And General Therapeutics. Part 6
We cannot here bring forward even a few of the facts that go to prove the truth of the dissociation theory of Arrhenius; but there are an abundance of the same to show that the chemical (and consequen...
-Pharmacology And General Therapeutics. Part 7
Similar reasoning applies to the bromides. We have long known of the hypnotic effects of the bromine salts and the specific effects of the bromides in epilepsy. These effects are due to the Br-ions, a...
-Pharmacology And General Therapeutics. Part 8
But these facts hold not only for the poisonous effects of a pure NaCl solution, but also for the poisonous effects of solutions of other salts, of univalent kations with univalent anions - LiCl, KC1,...
-References
1. See Fischer, Medical Record, 1901, March 30, where a review of the literature in its application to physiology and pathology is given in greater detail. 2. Loeb, Pflüger's Arch., 1897, lxix., p....
-Modes Of Introduction Of Remedies
Remedies may be applied externally to the skin or internally to many mucous membranes, either as a local application or to bring about systemic action. Methods of Skin Medication. - The passage of ...
-Local Applications To Mucous Membranes
The Eye. - Here lotions (collyria) of boric acid or hot water are applied. Ointments and caustics are applied directly. Calomel may be dusted into the eye for sluggish chronic inflammatory conditions...
-Local Applications To Mucous Membranes. Part 2
Enemata. - A different class of administrative operations consists in injections into the rectum, which injections may be purgative, anodyne, nutrient, emollient, astringent, anthelmintic, etc. For sp...
-Local Applications To Mucous Membranes. Part 3
Closely allied to the foregoing is the question of Idiosyncrasy, the constitutional peculiarity which exerts a subtle influence, scarcely understood, as potent as it is obscure. Its characteristics ca...
-Untoward Effects Of Drugs
Drugs given a specified patient, a victim of acquired or inherited defect, will produce in that patient unexpected results differing from their usual action. These results, which should not be 4 class...
-Classification Of Medicines
The classification of drugs and remedial agents is a theme regarding which the many writers upon and teachers of medicine have shown a wider diversity of opinion, perhaps, than upon the physiological ...
-Weights And Measures
The history of Weights and Measures affords a striking example of the incongruity resulting from the absence of a uniform standard of stable value to science, and must be regarded as the strongest arg...
-Apothecaries' (Troy) Weight
20 grains (gr. granuni) = 1 scruple (scrupulum). 60 grains, or 3 scruples = 1 drachm 3 (drachma). 480 grains, or 8 drachms ...
-Apothecaries' (Wine) Measure
60 minims (m) = 1 fluidrachm f3. 480 minims, or 8 fluidrachms = 1 fluidounce 7,680 minims, or 16 fluidounces = 1 pint...
-Illustrations
1 ounce, avoirdupois, = 437.5 grains. 1 ounce, troy or apothecaries', = 480 grains. 1 fluidounce of water (the standard of volum...
-The Metric System
The Metric System of Weights and Measures, destined to supplant all others, originated with Prince de Talleyrand, bishop of Autun, in 1790. Its almost universal adoption by civilized nations, its lega...
-Gild
Greek increases, Latin decreases. Contrary to a prevalent opinion, the Metric System is easily mastered. A perfect acquaintance with the metric tables is, naturally, indispensable, and the abbrevia...
-Metric Table Of Lengths
The measures of length employed in prescription writing are the millimeter, centimeter, decimeter, and meter. 10 millimeters make 1 centimeter. ...
-Metric Table Of Weights
The weights employed in prescription writing are the milligram, centigram, decigram, gram, and kilogram. The other terms in the following table are but rarely employed abroad and never among English-s...
-The Approximate And Exact Equivalents Of Weights, Measures, And Lengths In The Two Systems
Weights - Approximate. Exact. 1 milligram, 0.001 (mg.). 1/60 or 1/65 grain 0.0154 grain. 1 centigram, 0.01...
-Pharmaceutical Preparations
Preparations made by the pharmacist are called pharmaceutical preparations. Nearly one-half of the articles of the United States Pharmacopoeia are pharmaceutical; formulas being given for their prepar...
-Aquae Medicatae - Medicated Waters
The Medicated Waters are solutions of volatile substances in Water. They comprise (1) the Aromatic Waters and (2) the Chemical Waters. The Aromatic Waters are made by dissolving the volatile oils o...
-Liquores - Solutions
The Solutions (also termed Solutio, -nes, Lat.) are solutions of non-volatile substances in Water. The official Solutions are all solutions of inorganic salts. They are made either by simple soluti...
-The Alkali Solutions
Liquor - Percentage by vol. or weight. Calcis (Lime Water)...... . calcium hydroxide 0.14 Potassii Hydroxidi...... ...
-The Antiseptic Solutions
Liquor - Percentage by vol. or weight. Antisepticus . boric acid 2; benzoic acid 0.1 ; thymol 0.1; eucalyptol 0.025; oil of peppermint 0.05 ; oil of gaultheri...
-Unofficial Liquors Of The National Formulary. Liquor
Acidi Phosphorici Compositus (Acid Phosphates). Alumini Acetatis (Alumini Acetici, Ph. Ger.). - Contains 8 per cent. of basic Aluminum Acetate. Alumini Acetico-tartratis. - Contains about 50 per cent....
-Electropoeicus
(Battery-fluid). A. For the Carbon and Zinc Battery. - I. (For ordinary use). - Potassium Bichromate, in powder, 6 troy ounces (180 Gm.); Sulphuric Acid, commercial, 6 fluidounces (180 Cc.); Water,...
-Ferri Oxysulphatis
(Oxysulphate of Iron). Ferri Protochloridi (Solution of Ferrous Chloride). - Each fluidrachm (4 Cc.) represents about 20 grains (1.3 Gm.) of Protochloride of Iron (ferrous chloride). Hydrargyri ...
-Picis Alkalinus (Tar, Alkaline)
Potassae Chloratae (Solution of Chlorinated Potassa; Javelle Water). - An effective and popular disinfectant. Potassii Arsenatis et Bromidi (Liquor Arsenii Bromidi; Clemens' Solution). - This solut...
-Seriparus (Liquid Rennet)
If this liquid is to be used merely for curdling milk, without separating the whey as a distinct layer, it should be added to the milk, previously warmed to a temperature of about 35o C. (95o F.), and...
-Spiritus - Spirits
The Spirits are solutions of volatile substances in Alcohol. They comprise (1) the Distilled Spirits; (2) the Aromatic Spirits, or so-called Essences; and (3) the Medicinal Spirits. The Distilled Sp...
-Unofficial Spirits Of The National Formulary. Spiritus
Acidi Formici (Spirit of Ants, Ph. Ger.). - A solution of 3 per cent. of Formic Acid in Water and Alcohol. Ophthalmicus (Alcoholic Eye-wash). - A solution of 10 minims (0.6 Cc.) Oil of Lavender and...
-Syrupi - Syrups
Syrups are nearly saturated Solutions of Sugar in Water, in which aromatic or medicinal substances are dissolved. Syrups should be kept in a cool place, in cork-stoppered bottles, in order to prese...
-Unofficial Syrups Of The National Formulary
Unless otherwise stated, the dose is I to 2 fluidrachms or tea-spoonfuls (4-8 Cc). ...
-Syrupus
Actaeae Compositus (Cimicifuga or Black Cohosh). - Containing 2 1/2 grains (0.15) each of Cimicifuga and Wild Cherry, 1 1/4 grains (0.07) Glycyrrhiza and Senega, and 5/8 grain (0.04) Ipecac in each fl...
-Elixirs Of The National Formulary
The value of pleasant vehicles to mask or modify the taste of bitter and nauseous drugs is recognized by every prescriber. The following Elixirs of the National Formulary have been carefully selected,...
-Elixir
Adjuvans; a combination of Orange, Wild Cherry, Glycyr-rhiza, Coriander, and Caraway. Except for the exhibition of Quinine this is the most effective of the adjuvant Elixirs. Eriodictyi Aromatic...
-Glycerita - Glycerites
The Glycerites, or Glyceroles, are solutions of substances in Glycerin. They are made either by direct solution, by heat, or by extraction of a drug, as in Hydrastis; one is made by chemical reac...
-Unofficial Glycerites Of The National Formulary. Glyceritum
Pepsini (Glycerole of Pepsin). - Each 4 Cc. (fluidrachm) represents 0.3 (5 grains) of Pepsin. Picis Liquidae (Tar). - Containing about 0.3(5 grains) of Tar. Tragacanthae. - Containing about 12 per cen...
-Mucilagines - Mucilages
The Mucilages are prepared by extracting a mucilaginous drug with Water or dissolving a Gum in Water. The following four are official: Gm. in 100 Cc, Mucilago - or percentage. ...
-The Liquid Mixtures - Internal. Misturae - Mixtures
The official Mixtures are liquid preparations, for internal use, of medicinal substances suspended in Water containing sugar, gum, or glycerin. They require to be shaken up before using. They should b...
-Unofficial Mixtures Of The National Formulary
Mistura Acaciae - (Mistura Gummosa, Ph. Ger.). - Acacia, puly., Sugar, in Water. Should be freshly made when wanted for use. Adstringens et Escharotica (Villate's Solution). - Solution of Lea...
-Copaibae Composita
1. Lafayette Mixture. - Copaiba, 2 fluidounces (60 Cc); Tinct Lavender Comp., 2 fluidounces (60 Cc); Solution Potassa, 1/2 fluidounce (15 Cc.); Spirit Nitr. Ether, 2 fluid-ounces (60 Cc.); Syrup, 5 fl...
-Emulsa- Emulsions
Emulsions are liquid preparations consisting of oily, fatty, resinous, or otherwise insoluble substances suspended in watery liquids by the intervention of gum, mucilage, or other viscid matter. The o...
-Artificial Emulsions
These are made by mixing the Oil with a certain proportion of the emulsifying agent, adding Water, and triturating the mixture in a mortar or agitating it in a flask. There are various methods, but...
-Extractive Preparations
The active medicinal constituents, or principles, of crude drugs are obtained by extraction. Extraction is effected either by maceration, expression, and filtration or straining, or by maceration with...
-Infusa - Infusions
Unless otherwise directed, Infusions are prepared by the general official process: The substance, coarsely comminuted..................................... 5 Gm. ...
-Unofficial Infusions Of The National Formulary. Infusum
Brayerae (U. S. P. 1880). - Brayera (Cusso), 6; Boiling Water, 100 Cc. To be dispensed without straining the mixture. Gentianae Compositum Fortius. - For preparing Infusum Gentianae Compositum by mixi...
-Species
Emollientes (Emollient Cataplasm, Ph. Ger.). - A mixture of Althaea Leaves, Mallow Leaves, Melilot Tops, Matricaria, and Flaxseed, equal parts of each. Laxantes (St. Germain Tea, Ph. Ger.). - A mix...
-Decocta - Decoctions
Unless otherwise directed, Decoctions are prepared according to the following general process: The substance, coarsely comminuted....................... 5 Gm. ...
-Aceta - Vinegars
The Vinegars are made by extraction with Dilute Acetic Acid. By maceration: Acetum - Gm. in 100 Cc. Opii (Black Drop) . sugar 20; nutmeg 3; powd. opium 10....
-Vina- Wines
The Wines are made by solution, by maceration, or by maceration and percolation. The Menstruum is White Wine (except in Wine of Coca) with or without the addition of Alcohol (added to aid in the extra...
-Unofficial Wines Of The National Formulary
The Wines, with a few exceptions, are prepared with White Wine (Vinum album, U. S.), usually with the addition of 10 per cent. of Alcohol, in order better to preserve the preparation. Vinum - Aloes...
-Aurantii. - Sherry Wine Flavored With Orange
Aurantii Compositum (Elixir Aurantiorum Compositum). - A combination of Bitter Orange Peel, Absinthium, Menyanthes, Cascarilla, Cinnamon, and Gentian, in Sherry Wine. Useful as a stomachic tonic in do...
-Vinum
Cocs Aromaticum. - Each fluidounce (30 Cc.) represents 30 grains (2 Gm.) of Coca with Aromatics. Fraxini Americanae (White Ash). - Each fluidrachm (4 Cc.) represents 30 grains (2 Gm.) of Fraxinus (bar...
-Tincturae - Tinctures
Tinctures are liquid preparations made by the extraction of Drugs with menstrua of Alcohol and Water in various proportions. They are prepared by maceration and filtration or by percolation (the tinct...
-Tinctures Of The U. S. P
Name. Drug. Gm. in 100 Cc. Menstrua. Alcohol, per cent. U. S. P. Average Dose. Tinctura - Cc. Min...
-Unofficial Tinctures Of The National Formulary. Tinctura
Amara (Bitter Tincture, Ph. Ger.). - Containing Gentian, Centaury, Bitter Orange Peel, Orange Berries, and Zedoary. Antacrida (Dysmenorrhea Mixture; Fenner's Guaiac Mixture). - A mixture of Guaiac,...
-Fluidextracta --Fluidextracts
Fluidextracts may be defined as a class of concentrated tinctures of such strength as to represent the drug, volume for weight. They are made by percolation, maceration, or digestion. The following...
-Unofficial Fluidextracts Of The National Formulary
Unless otherwise indicated, the dose of the following Fluid-extracts is from 1/2 to 1 fluidram (2 to 4 Cc): Fluidextractum - Adonidis. - Root of Adonis vernalis L. (Bird's Eye). Aletridis. - Rhizom...
-Fluidextractum
Helianthemi. - Herb of Helianthemum Canadense Mich. (Frost-wort). Humuli. - Strobiles of Humulus Lupulus L. (Hops). Hydrangeae. - Root of Hydrangea arborescens L. (Seven Barks). Jalapae. - Tu...
-Extracta - Extracts
Extracts - or solid extracts, as they are termed, to distinguish them from fiuidextracts - are the soluble principles of vegetable drugs, extracted and concentrated by evaporation to a soft solid o...
-Oleoresinae - Oleoresins
To natural Oleoresins, derived as plant-exudations, belong the Turpentines and the Pitches. From similar exudations are obtained the Gum Resins, mixtures of Gum and Resins and sometimes Volatile Oils;...
-Resinae - Resins
The official Resins may be divided into the (1) Natural Resins, (2) Resins obtained from Oleoresins by separating the Volatile Oil by distillation, and (3) the Pharmaceutical Resins, prepared by preci...
-Solid Mixtures For Internal Use
Mixtures of Solids for internal use embrace the following classes of preparations: Powders, Effervescent Salts, Confections, Troches, Masses, and Pills. Powders are substances reduced to a fine pul...
-Pulveres - Powders
The official Powders are impalpable mixtures of one or more active drugs, usually with some nearly inert substance, such as Sugar, as a diluent, and Aromatics. They are made by trituration. ...
-Unofficial Powders Of The N. F. Pulvis. Acaciae Compositus
(Pulvis Gummosus, Ph. Ger.). Acetanilidi Compositus. - Containing 50 per cent. Acetan- Pulvis ilid, 2 per cent. Caffeine, with Tartaric Acid and Sodium Bicarbonate. ...
-Aloes Et Canellae
(Hiera Picra). Amygdalae Compositus (Almonds Comp.) - A mixture of Sweet Almond, Sugar, and Acacia, in fine powder; 180 grains (10 Gm.), triturated with Water, yield about 4 fluid-ounces (119 Cc.) ...
-Sales Effervescentes --Effervescent Salts
These are granulated mixtures of Salts with Sugar and Sodium Bicarbonate and Tartaric Acid, which effervesce when the Salt is dissolved in Water and furnish agreeable aerated draughts. The followin...
-Salts
(Non-effervescent). Sal Carolinus Factitius. - In two forms, Dry (Ph. Ger.) and Crystalline. A solution of about 16 grains (1 Gm.) of the Dry (27 grains (1.8) of the Crystalline) in 6 fluidounces (...
-Confectiones - Confections
Confections may be defined as flavored masses wherein the adhesive substance is Sugar in large proportions, serving as a vehicle for masking the taste of the drug. Confections, when made by beating...
-Trochisci - Troches
Troches, or lozenges, are confections made into various forms and then dried. The vehicle or excipient consists of Powdered Gum Tragacanth or Sugar with flavoring - in some cases orange flower wate...
-Massae - Masses
Masses are plastic mixtures of pilular consistence. They are made by incorporating the drug with adhesive substances, by chemical reaction, and sometimes by both processes. The Masses are intended ...
-Pilulae - Pills
Pills are spherical, more or less soluble masses of medicinal substances rendered cohesive, plastic, and finn in consistence by the addition of some substance (usually inert) termed an excipient. T...
-Unofficial Pills Of The National Formulary
When a large number of pills are to be prepared in accordance with the given proportions, and the quantities of the ingredients are to be determined by multiplying with the number of pills required, i...
-Pilulae
Ad Prandium (Dinner Pills). - When Dinner Pills, under this or some other equivalent name, are prescribed without further specification, the National Formulary recommends that the Pilulae Aloes et M...
-Unofficial Forms Of Mixtures Of Solids For Internal Use
Granules are small pills, less than 1 grain (0.06) in weight, usually sugar-coated and containing alkaloids and other active drugs. Parvules are identical with granules. They are usually colored re...
-Preparations For External Use
To this group belong the liquid preparations: Liniments, Oleates and Collodions, and the mixtures of solids: Ointments, Cerates, Suppositories, Plasters, and Papers. The Vehicle, sometimes incorrectly...
-Linimenta - Liniments
The Liniments are liquid preparations for external use, consisting of solutions of oily or resinous constituents in Alcohol or Oils, or mixtures of liquid Soaps. The official Liniments are prepared by...
-Linimentum
Ammoniae.......cottonseed oil 57; oleic acid 3; ammonia water 35; alchohol 5. Belladonnae . . camphor 5 Gm.; fl. ext. belladonna to make 100 Cc. Calcis (Carron Oil).....linseed oil 50; lime wate...
-Lotiones - Washes. Lotio -. Adstringens
(Warren's Styptic). - A mixture of Sulphuric Acid, Oil of Turpentine, and Alcohol. Flava (Yellow Wash, Aqua Phagedaenica Flava, Ph. Ger.). - Corrosive Mercuric Chloride, 24 grains (1.5), in Lime Water...
-Oleata - Oleates
The official Oleates are solutions of oleates in Oleic Acid. They are distinct from the solid oleates, which are made by double decomposition of salts of the metals and alkaline earths and sodium olea...
-Unofficial Oleates Of The National Formulary
The following are simply solutions of the alkaloids in Oleic Acid: AconitinaE. - Contains 2 per cent. of crystallized Aconitine (Duquesnel's). Quinine. - Contains 25 per cent. of Quinine (Alkaloid)...
-Olea Infusa - Infused Oils
These preparations are obtained by infusing a dry herb, usually from the so-called narcotic plants, in five times its weight of a mixture of equal parts of Cotton Seed Oil and Lard Oil. Oleum Hyoscyam...
-Oleum
Carbolatum. - A mixture of Cotton Seed Oil with 5 per cent. of Carbolic Acid. Hyoscyami Compositum (Balsamum Tranquillans). - Infused Oil of Hyoscyamus, with a small proportion of each of the Ether...
-Collodia - Collodions
The Collodions are solutions in Ether-Alcohol of Pyroxylin or Soluble Gun Cotton. Upon evaporation of the solvent the remaining film excludes the air, thus protecting abraded surfaces. Collodion is al...
-Unofficial Collodions. Collodium
Iodatum (Iodized Collodion). - Contains 5 per cent. Iodine in Flexible Collodion. Iodoformatum (Iodoform Collodion). - Contains 5 per cent. Iodoform in Flexible Collodion. Salicylatum Compositum (C...
-Unguenta - Ointments
Ointments are mixtures of a fatty vehicle with which medicinal agents are incorporated, readily fusing at the body-temperature, 35 to 40C. (95o to 104o F.). The medicinal ingredients must be minute...
-Unofficial Ointments Of The National Formulary
Unguentum Acidi Gallici (U. S. P. 1880). - Contains 10 per cent. Gallic Acid. Unguentum Calaminae (Unguentum Zinci Carbonatis Im-puri; Turner's Cerate). - Contains 17 per cent. Zinc Carbonate (Imp....
-Cerata - Cerates
Cerates are mixtures of fats similar to the ointments, but of firmer consistence, because they contain Wax, Resin, or Paraffin (having a higher melting-point than Lard) in greater proportion than do o...
-Suppositoria - Suppositories
Suppositories may be defined as variously shaped masses of medicated fat, possessing a consistence ensuring their quick fusion when introduced in the orifices of the body. The U. S. P. defines Supp...
-Emplastra - Plasters
Plasters are mixtures of various fatty or resinous solids of such high melting-point as to be friable when cold, but rendered adhesive by the warmth of the body. The vehicles of plasters are: Lead...
-Unofficial Plasters Of The National Formulary. Emplastrum
Ammoniaci (U. S. P. 1880). - Gum-resin Ammoniac with Acetic Acid. Aromaticum (Spice Plaster). - Consisting of Cloves, Cinnamon, and Ginger, each, 10 per cent.; Capsicum and Camphor, each, 5 per cen...
-Chartae - Papers
There is one Paper official. It is paper coated with Mustard, used similarly to the Plasters: Charta Sinapis . . oil-free black mustard, 4 Gm. in 60 sq. cm. The Mustard is freed from the fixed o...
-Drugs Whose Chief Action Is On The Nervous System. The Alcohols
In the present work care has been taken to designate the proper pronunciation of the names of drugs and their preparations common to Materia Medica and Therapeutics. The simplest and most efficient me...
-Alcohol - Alcoholis - Alcohol. U. S. P
Definition. - A liquid composed of about 92.3 per cent. by weight, or 94.9 per cent. by volume, of absolute ethyl alcohol, and about 7.7 per cent. by weight of water. Description and. Properties. -...
-Unofficial Alcoholic Preparations
Spiritus Rectificatus - Spiritus Rectificati - Rectified Spirit - contains 85b per cent. by weight of absolute alcohol. Proof Spirit contains 49 per cent. by weight of absolute alcohol, together wi...
-Unofficial Alcoholic Preparations. Part 2
Nervous System. - The chief action of alcohol is on the nervous system. All portions of the nervous system are affected at once by the drug, but there seems to be a regular series of poisoning stages ...
-Unofficial Alcoholic Preparations. Part 3
A similar lesson may be learned from the obesity of alcohol users. These accumulate fat because the addition of the alcohol supplies a readily oxidizable substance and the normal fat is not called on ...
-Unofficial Alcoholic Preparations. Part 4
Pathological changes induced by chronic alcoholism are very numerous. Chronic congestion and irritation of the stomach lead to catarrhal gastritis. In the liver new connective tissue forms, particular...
-Unofficial Alcoholic Preparations. Part 5
Alcohol is an excellent local application to counteract the caustic action of carbolic acid. Alcohol, or brandy, has been successfully employed to harden nipples and prevent their cracking. A ve...
-General Anesthetics
Ether, chloroform, and a number of related compounds, ethyl chloride, methylene chloride, etc., form a group of these alcohol derivatives, in which the property of rapid volatilization causes the form...
-Aether - Aetheris - Ether. U. S. P
Origin. - A liquid composed of about 96 per cent. by weight of absolute ether or ethyl oxide, [(C2H5)2O = 73.52], and about 4 per cent. of alcohol containing a little water. Description and Propert...
-Aether - Aetheris - Ether. U. S. P. Continued
Treatment of Untoward Manifestations. - Withdraw the ether if there be danger of respiratory or cardiac failure, lowering the head if there be indications of the latter, and if respiratory failure be ...
-Chloroformum - Chloroformi - Chloroform. U. S. P
Definition. - A liquid consisting of from 99 to 99.4 per cent., by weight, of absolute chloroform, and from 0.6 to 1 per cent. of alcohol. Description and Properties. - A heavy, clear, colorless, m...
-Some Points Of Difference In Ether And Chloroform
Ether. - Not in tropics because of low Chloroform. - Tropics. boiling-point. Avoid flame. Large bulk. Army work. Local anesthetic. Cooling. Irritant to glottis. Longer time. More excitement. ...
-Aethylis Chlridum - Aethylis Chlridi - Ethyl Chloride. U. S. P
Definition. - A haloid derivative prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid gas upon absolute ethyl alcohol. It is also known as chelene or kelene. Description. - A colorless, mobile, very volati...
-Additional Anesthetics And Their Comparative Value
Ethyl Bromide. - A colorless, inflammable liquid, with a burning taste and an odor like that of chloroform. It is readily decomposed, with evolution of bromide. Its action is uncertain, causing great ...
-Hypnotics
The term hypnotics has been applied to a group of substances capable of inducing sleep. A large number of these hypnotics are members of the methane series, or close derivatives. Their hypnotic action...
-Mylene Hydrate
A tertiary alcohol, the chemical name being dimethylethylcarbinol. Description and Properties. - It occurs as a limpid, colorless, neutral fluid, of a peculiar odor and burning taste. It is soluble...
-Aethylis Carb Mas - Aethylis Carbamatis - Ethyl Carbamate - Urethane. U. S. P
Definition. - An ester of carbamic acid, obtained by the reaction of ethyl alcohol upon urea (carbamide) or one of its salts. Reaction: Description and Properties. - It occurs as col...
-Hedonal
Methyl-propyl-carbinol urethane, Properties. - A white crystalline powder insoluble in cold water, slightly soluble in warm water. Soluble in alcohol. Dose. - From 15-45 grains (1-3 Gm.), be...
-Veronal
A related product. Diethyl-malonyl urea, C(C2H5)2CO(CONH)2. Properties. - A white crystalline powder, soluble in 145 parts of cold water and 12 parts of boiling water. Slightly bitterish taste. Dose. ...
-Paraldehydum - Paraldehydi - Paraldehyde. U. S. P
Origin. - A polymer of acetaldehyde [CH3COH]. Description and Properties. - A colorless, transparent liquid, having a strong, characteristic, but not unpleasant, pungent odor, somewhat resembling t...
-Sulphur Derivatives Of Alcohol
In a series of experiments on the feeding of animals with sulphur compounds with reference to the formation of fat, Baumann and Kast found that several of the products caused sleep, and they investiga...
-Sulphonmethanum - Sulphonmethane - Sulphonal. U. S. P
This substance, diethylsulphondimethylmethane, is the product of the oxidation of the mercaptol obtained by the condensation of acetone with ethylmercaptan. Description and Properties. - It ...
-Trional. V. S. P
Diethylsulphonmethylethylmethane, (CH3)(C2H5)C(SO2C2H5)2, a product of the oxidation of mercaptol, obtained by the condensation of methylethylketone with ethyl-mercaptan. Description. - It occurs i...
-Halogen Derivatives Of Alcohol
A large and important series of hypnotics are classed in this group. Chloral, the point of departure of the others, has been in use for a number of years, and in the attempt to produce a similar body ...
-Chlorlum Hydrtum - Chlorli Hydrti - Hydrated Chloral. U.S.P
Definition. - A crystalline solid composed of trichloraldehyde or chloral [CCl3.COH] (an unstable, oily, and colorless fluid), with 1 molecule of water, forming the Hydrate of Chloral, the official pr...
-Chlorlum Hydrtum - Chlorli Hydrti - Hydrated Chloral. Continued
Acute Poisoning. - The symptoms of poisoning from lethal doses are those of profound alcoholic narcosis plus the specific chlorine action. The patient is comatose. The pulse is feeble, thready, and ir...
-Chloralformamidum - Chloralformamidi - Chloralformamide. V. S. P
(Chloralamide.) Definition. - A crystalline solid [CCl3.CH(OH)NH.COH] made by the direct union of formaraide and anhydrous chloral. Description and Properties. - Chloralamide occurs as colorless...
-Unofficial Chloral Allies
Croton-chloral (Unofficial). - Origin. - Prepared by passing dry chlorine gas into acetic aldehyde, resulting in the formation of butyl-chloral, which is separated by fractional distillation, and wate...
-Acetnum - Acetni - Acetone. U. S. P
Definition. - A liquid containing not less than 99 per cent. by weight of absolute acetone. (U. S. P.) Acetone is chemically dimethyl-ketone (CH3COCH3). It is present to a considerable extent in cr...
-Narcotics, Pium - Pii - Opium. U. S. P
Definition. - The concrete, milky exudation obtained by incising the unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum (L.), and yielding in its normal moist condition not less than 9 per cent. of crystallized mo...
-Narcotics, Pium - Pii - Opium. U. S. P. Part 2
Morphinae Acetas - Morphinae Acetatis - Morphine Acetate. - A white or faintly yellowish-white, crystalline or amorphous powder, having a faint, acetous odor and a bitter taste. Soluble in 2.5 parts o...
-Narcotics, Pium - Pii - Opium. U. S. P. Part 3
On awakening, nausea and vomiting are usual, often a severe and miserable headache, which persists a part of the following day. Opium is one of the most powerful analgesics known. Pain is relieved,...
-Narcotics, Pium - Pii - Opium. U. S. P. Part 4
Chronic opium-poisoning, resulting from the habitual use of opium, its most active constituent morphine, or its salts, is undoubtedly one of the most pernicious habits to which the human body can be s...
-Narcotics, Pium - Pii - Opium. U. S. P. Part 5
While a successful outcome is not always to be expected, much can be accomplished by persistent effort in these cases. They are not hopeless by any means. Therapeutics. - In a general way the medic...
-Narcotics, Pium - Pii - Opium. U. S. P. Part 6
Contraindications. - If avoidable, opium should not be given to children under five years of age. Should the necessity of administration under that age be deemed advisable in the judgment of the physi...
-Contrasts Of Opium And Its Alkaloids
It has been pointed out that opium is a very variable body. Its chief action is dependent on morphine, which is found, as a rule, in the largest amounts. Occasionally the morphine strength is low, and...
-Allied Morphine Compounds
Heroin - Diacetyl Morphine. - This is an acetic ester of morphine. It is a white crystalline powder, of faintly bitter taste, but practically insoluble in water, but rendered soluble with dilute acids...
-Hmulus - Hmuli - Hops. U. S. P
Definition. - The carefully dried strobiles of Humulus Lupulus L. bearing their natural glandular trichomes. Description and Properties. - Ovate, about 3 Cm. long, consisting of a thin, hairy, undu...
-Lupulnum - Lupulni - Lupulin. U. S. P
Definition. - The glandular trichomes separated from the fruit of Humulus Lupulus L. Description and Properties. - Bright, brownish-yellow, becoming yellowish-brown, resinous, consisting of minute ...
-Official Preparations Of Lupulin
Fluidextrctum Lupulni - Fluidextrcti Lupulni. - Fluidextract of Lupulin. - Dose, 5-30 minims (0. 12-2.0 Cc). Oleoresina Lupulini - Oleoresinse Lupulini - Oleoresin of Lupulin. - Dose, 1-5 grains (0...
-Lactucrium - Lactucrii - Lactucarium. U.S.P
Definition. - The concrete milk-juice of Lactuca virosa L., a biennial rank-smelling herb growing in Europe. Description and Properties. - It occurs in sections of plano-convex, circular cakes, or ...
-Cnnabis Ndica - Cnnabis Ndicae - Indian Cannabis. U. S. P
(Indian Hemp.) Definition. - The dried flowering tops of the pistillate plant of Cannabis sativa L., grown in the East Indies and gathered while the fruits are as yet undeveloped and carrying the w...
-The Mydriatic Narcotics
Because of their narcotic properties, utilized clinically in the treatment of diseased conditions, the following drugs are included in this subdivision of Narcotics. The most important are belladonna,...
-Belladnnae Flia - Belladnnae Folirum - Belladonna Leaves. U. S. P
Definition. - The dried leaves of Atropa Belladonna L., yielding when assayed not less than 0.35 per cent. of mydriatic alkaloids. Atropa Belladonna is a nearly glabrous, herbaceous, perennial plan...
-Belladonnae Rdix - Belladnnae Rdicis - Belladonna Root. U. S. P
Description and Properties. - The dried root of Atropa Belladonna, yielding when assayed not less than 0.5 per cent. of mydriatic alkaloids. The root occurs in cylindrical, tapering, longitudinally wr...
-Atropina - Atropinae - Atropine. U. S. P
Definition. - An alkaloid obtained from Atropa Belladonna and from other plants of the same family. Description and Properties. - White acicular crystals, or a more or less amorphous white powder, ...
-Homatroplnae Hydrobromidum - Homatropinae Hydrobromidi - Homatropine Hydrobromide
Definition. - The hydrobromide of an alkaloid obtained by the condensation of tropine and mandelic acid. Atropine may be broken up, by the action of alkalies, into an alkaloid, tropine, and an arom...
-Atropine Compared With Morphine
Atropine stimulates respiration; morphine is a powerful respiratory depressant. Atropine dilates the pupil; morphine contracts it. Atropine increases bodily heat, and frequently reddens the surface of...
-Hyoscyamus - Hyoscyami - Hyoscyamus. U. S. P
(Henbane. ) Origin. - The dried leaves and flowering tops of Hyoscyamus niger L., collected from plants of the second year's growth, and yielding, when assayed, not less than .08 per cent. of mydri...
-Scopola - Scopolae - Scopola. V. S. P
Definition. - The dried rhizome of Scopola Carniolica, Jacquin. Scopola is closely related to belladonna and hyoscyamus. The Pharmacopoeia demands that the drug contain not less than 0.5 per cent. ...
-Stramonium - Stramonii - Stramonium. U. S. P
(Thorn-apple; Jamestown or Jimson Weed.) Definition. - The dried leaves of Datura Stramonium L., yielding when assayed not less than 0.35 per cent. of mydriatic alkaloids. Stramonium is a coarse-lo...
-Motor Depressants
The more classic of these motor depressants is curare, but conium, because of its more extended use in therapy, will be first considered. Gelsemium, a third member of the group, may be said in a gener...
-Conium - Conli - Conium. U. S. P
(Spotted Hemlock.) Origin. - The full-grown but unripe fruit of Conium maculatum L., carefully dried and preserved, and yielding when assayed not less than 0.5 per cent. of coniine. After being kep...
-Curare - Curare - Curare (Unofficial)
(Woorari.) Origin. - An extract of uncertain composition prepared by the natives of South America as an arrow-poison. Dr. Jobert reported to the French Academy in 1878 that the poison was prepared ...
-Gelsemium - Gelsemii - Gelsemium. U. S. P
(Yellow Jasmine.) Origin. - The dried rhizome and roots of Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Pers., a plant indigenous in the southern United States, growing in moist woods. Description and Properties...
-Physostlgrma - Physostigmatis - Physostigrna. U. S. P
(Calabar Bean.) Origin. - The seed of Physostigrna venenosum Balfour, a lofty, half-shrubby, climbing plant (somewhat resembling the scarlet runner or Spanish bean of our gardens), growing near the...
-Physostlgrma - Physostigmatis - Physostigrna. U. S. P. Continued
Other prominent symptoms present are spasm of accommodation and decreased intra-ocular tension and myopia. Irritation of the third nerve is the principal cause of these phenomena. The intra-ocular pre...
-Grindelia - Grindeliae - Grindelia. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried leaves and flowering tops of Grindelia robusta Nutt., and of Grindelia squarrosa Dunal, herbaceous or suffrulicose perennials, indigenous in the western part of North America and M...
-Sumbul - Sumbul - Sumbul. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried root of an undetermined plant, probably of the family Umbel-UfercB. It is thought by some to be Ferula sumbul (Kauffmann) Hooker fil, a perennial about 8 feet (2.4 M.) high, indige...
-Haw. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried bark of Viburnum prunifolium L., a tall shrub or small tree, 10 to 20 feet (3-6 M.) high, growing in thickets throughout the greater portion of the United States east of the Missis...
-Viburnum Opulus - Viburni Opuli - Cramp Bark. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried bark of Viburnum opulus L., a small tree 10 to 15 feet (3-4.5 M.) high, indigenous in Canada, the Northern United States, Europe, and Northern Asia. Description and Properties. ...
-Hydrocyanic Acid And Cyanides. Acidum Hydrocyanicum Dilutum - Acidi Hydrocy-Anici Diluti - Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid. U. S. P
Definition. - A liquid composed of not less than 2 per cent. by weight of absolute hydrocyanic acid, HCN, and about 98 per cent. of water. Description. - A colorless liquid with characteristic odor...
-Cyanide. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by heating in an iron crucible a mixture of exsiccated potassium ferrocyanide 8 parts and potassium carbonate 3 parts until effervescence ceases. Description and Properties. - Wh...
-Bromides
Potassii Bromidum - Potassii Bromidi - Potassium Bromide (U. S. P.). Origin. - Prepared by adding bromine to a solution of potassa, evaporating to dryaess, mixing with charcoal, heating to redness,...
-Bromides. Part 2
Externally and Locally. - Potassium bromide is slightly sedative to mucous membranes when applied locally, lessening the reflex irritability, particularly of the pharynx. Internally. - Digestive Sy...
-Bromides. Part 3
Calcium bromide, while resembling them in its action, is less energetic than the other bromides. Zinc bromide is the most irritant, and is supposed to possess both tonic and sedative properties. ...
-Motor Excitants
From a general point of view there are a large number of drugs that might readily be classed as motor excitants. Thus belladonna causes increased motor excitability, and might be here included. This i...
-Nux Vomica - Nucis Vomicae - Nux Vomica. U.S.P
Origin. - The dried, ripe seed of Strychnos Nux-vomica L. Yielding when assayed not less than 1.25 per cent. of strychnine. Nux vomica is a small tree common in many parts of Hindustan, Farther Ind...
-Strychnina - Strychninae - Strychnine. U. S. P
Origin. - An alkaloid obtained from nux vomica, and also derived from other plants of the Loganiacece. Description and Properties. - Colorless, transparent, octahedral or prismatic crystals, or a w...
-Strychnina - Strychninae - Strychnine. U. S. P. Continued
Absorption and Elimination. - Strychnine is rapidly absorbed and slowly excreted. It is eliminated mainly by the kidneys, appearing in the urine as strychnine, and is also slightly excreted by the ski...
-Hydrastis - Hydrastis - Hydrastis. U. S. P
(Golden Seal.) Origin. - The dried rhizome and roots of Hydrastis canadensis L., yielding, when assayed, not less than 2.5 per cent. of hydrastine. Closely related to strychnine in some particulars...
-Hydrastinae Hydrochloridum - Hydrastininae Hydrochloridi - Hydrastinine Hydrochloride (U. S. P.).-
Origin. - The hydrochloride of an artificial alkaloid derived from hydrastine. Description and Properties. - Light-yellow, amorphous granules, or a pale-yellow crystalline powder, odorless, and ha...
-Coca
Erythroxylon Coca. - Students frequently confuse this drug with the cacao that gives the widely used drink cacao and chocolate, the Theobroma cacao. Needless to say they are widely separated products....
-Coca - Cocae - Coca. U.S.P
Origin. - The dried leaves of Erythroxylon Coca Lam., known commercially as Huanuco Coca or of E. Truxillense, Rusby, known commercially as Truxillo Coca, yielding when assayed not less than 0.5 per c...
-Cocaina - Cocainae - Cocaine
Definition. - An alkaloid [C8H13(C6H5CO)NO.COOCH3] obtained from several varieties of coca. Description and Properties. - Slightly soluble in water (1: 600), much more so in alcohol (1: 5), more re...
-Cocalnae Hydrochloridum - Cocainae Hydrochloridi - Cocaine Hydrochloride. U. S. P
Definition. - The neutral hydrochloride of the alkaloid cocaine. Description and. Properties. - Colorless, transparent crystals or a white, crystalline powder, odorless, of a saline, slightly bitte...
-Cocalnae Hydrochloridum. Cocaine Hydrochloride. Part 2
Nervous System. - When given internally its first action is upon the cerebrum, moderate doses greatly stimulating the intellectual faculties and producing a feeling of ecstacy and well-being, in many ...
-Cocalnae Hydrochloridum. Cocaine Hydrochloride. Part 3
Doses of from 35-15 grains have caused death in from eight to nine hours. Therapeutics. - Externally and Locally. - The indications for the local anesthetic action of cocaine are very numerous. The...
-Anjesthesin
ethyl para-amido-benzoate, is a similar body oft like properties with the same general indications. Stovaine is a recent (1903) addition to this group. It is a derivative of tertiary amylic alc...
-Drugs Acting Chiefly On The Circulatory Organs
There is a large group of drugs which, like many of the foregoing, show marked pharmacodynamic action on several tissue systems of the body, and hence on more than one physiological function. Their ch...
-The Digitalis Group
In this group are classed Digitalis purpurea, Strophanthus Kombe, and S. hispidus, Convallaria majalis, Urginea Scilla, Helleborus niger, Apocynum cannabinum, Adonis vernalis, Nerium oleander, Erythro...
-Digitalis - Digitalis-Digitalis. U. S. P
(Fox-glove.) Origin.- The dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea L., collected from plants of the second year's growth at the commencement of flowering. The plant is a biennial, 2 to 5 feet (0.6-1.5 M....
-Digitalis - Digitalis-Digitalis. U. S. P. Part 2
This condition of increased tone may be held by judicious use of digitalis for considerable periods of time. Should the limit of safe dosage, however, be overstepped, the poisonous action of digitalis...
-Digitalis - Digitalis-Digitalis. U. S. P. Part 3
Treatment of Poisoning. - Lavage of the stomach should be immediate, emetics being too depressing if the heart is already-affected by the poison. A solution of tannic acid should be introduced into th...
-Strophanthus - Strophanthi - Strophanthus. V. S. P
Origin. - The ripe seed of Strophanthus Kombt Oliver, deprived of its long awn. The plant is a woody climber, ascending to the tops of high trees, from which it hangs in festoons. It is found in tropi...
-Strophanthinum - Strophanthini - Strophanthin. U. S. P
Definition. - A glucoside, or mixture of glucosides, obtained from strophanthus. Description and Properties. - Strophanthin is a white or faintly yellowish crystalline powder. It is permanent in th...
-Convallaria - Convallariae - Convallaria. U. S. P
(Lily of the Valley.) Origin. - The dried rhizome and roots of Convallaria majalis L., a stemless perennial indigenous in Europe, Northern Asia, and North America. Description and Properties. - ...
-Scoparius - Scoparii - Scoparius. U. S. P
(Broom.) Origin. - The dried tops of Cytisus scoparius L., a shrub 3 to 6 feet (0.9-1.8 M.) high, found in Western Siberia and the greater part of Europe. It is sometimes cultivated, and is occasio...
-Cactus - Cacti - Cactus - Night-Bloomingr Cereus
(Non-official.) Origin. - The stems and flowers of Cactus grandifloms L., a plant indigenous in tropical America and frequently cultivated for ornament. Preparations Fluidextractum Cacti - Fl...
-Drugs Acting Chiefly As Vasoconstrictors
A number of the group of drugs whose main action is on the organs of circulation act, in some respects, like the digitalis group, but instead of exerting their main action on the heart-muscle, their c...
-Ergota - Ergrotae - Ergot. U.S.P
Origin. - The sclerotium of Claviceps purpurea (Fries) Tulasne (Fungi), replacing the grain of rye, Secale cereale L. Most of the commercial article comes from Spain and Russia. Description and Pro...
-Ergota - Ergrotae - Ergot. U.S.P. Continued
Poisoning. - There are two varieties of ergot-poisoning, acute and chronic. Under the administration of immoderate doses peculiar symptoms appear, known collectively as acute ergotism. Restlessness, m...
-Gossypii Cortex - Gossypii Corticis - Cotton-Root Bark. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried bark of the root of Gossypium herbaceum L. and of other species of the genus, indigenous in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. The plant has been cultivated i...
-Glandulae Suprarenales Siccae - Glandularum Su-Prarenalium Siccarum - Desiccated Suprarenal Glands. U. S. P
Definition. - The cleaned, dried, and powdered suprarenal glands of the sheep or ox, freed from fat. Description. - A light, yellowish, amorphous powder, having a slight characteristic odor; partia...
-Xanthine Derivatives. Caffeina - Caffeinae - Caffeine. U. S. P
Origin. - A feebly basic substance [C5H(CH3)3N4O2 + H1O], obtained from the dried leaves of Thea Sinensis (tea) L., or from the dried seeds of Coffea Arabica (coffee) L., and found also in other plant...
-Drugs Acting Chiefly To Inhibit Cardiac Activity And To Cause Vasodilatation. Aconitum - Aconiti - Aconite. U.S.P
Origin. - The dried tuberous root of Aconitum Napellus L., collected in autumn, and yielding when assayed not less than 0.5 per cent. of aconitine, a plant about 40 inches (1M.) high, met with through...
-Veratrum - Veratri - Veratrum. U.S.P
(American Hellebore.) Origin. - The dried rhizome and roots of Veratrum viride Solander, a plant growing in swampy places and damp thickets in Canada, and in the United States as far south as Georg...
-Veratrina - Veratrinae - Veratrine. U. S. P
Definition. - A mixture of alkaloids obtained from the seed of Asagraea officinalis (Charts and Schlech.) Lundl. Description and Properties. - A white or grayish-white, amorphous or semicrystalline...
-Phytolacca - Phytolacca - Phytolacca. U. S. P
(Poke-root. ) Definition. - The dried root of Phytolacca decandra L. Description and Properties. - Large, conical, branched, and fleshy; mostly in transverse or longitudinal slices, wrinkled, gr...
-Pulsatilla - Pulsatillae - Pulsatilla. (Non-Official.)
Origin. - The herb of Anemone Pulsatilla and Anemone pratensis L., collected soon after flowering. Description and Properties. - Leaves radical, petiolate, silky-villous, twice or thrice deeply thr...
-Arnica - Arnicae - Arnica. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried flower-heads of Arnica montana L., a plant indigenous in the mountainous regions of Europe and Northern Asia, and also found in the northwestern part of America. Description and...
-Vasodilators
One set of the circulatory drugs has the primary property of dilating the blood-vessels and of reducing the blood-pressure. This action is in large part due to a depressing action they exert on unstri...
-Amylis Nitris - Amylis Nitritis - Amyl Nitrite. U. S. P
Origin. - A liquid containing about 80 per cent. of amyl (principally iso-amyl) nitrite. Obtained by the action of nitric acid upon amylic alcohol. Description and Properties. - A clear yellow or p...
-Sodii Nitris - Sodii Nitritis - Sodium Nitrite. U. S. P
Origin. - It should contain not less than 90 per cent. of pure sodium nitrite. Obtained by heating sodium nitrate with lead, the oxygen from the nitrate being abstracted by the lead oxide formed. D...
-Other Nitrites
Erythrol tetranitrate and mannitol hexanitrite are organic nitrates that have similar action. This action is more prolonged, and is therefore to be recommended in chronic conditions. Dose, 1/2 grain (...
-Spiritus Glycerylis Nitratis - Spiritus Glycerylis Nitratis - Spirit Of Glyceryl Trinitrate. U. S. P
(Spirit of Nitroglycerin.) Definition. - An alcoholic solution containing 1 per cent. by weight of glyceryl trinitrate. Origin. - Nitroglycerin is obtained by gradually adding dehydrated glyceri...
-Preparations Of Ammonium
Aqua Ammoniae Fortior - Aquae Ammoniae Fortioris - Stronger Ammonia Water. U. S. P. Origin. - An aqueous solution of ammonia (NH3 = 16.93), containing 28 per cent. by weight of gaseous ammonia. ...
-Water. V. S. P
Origin. - An aqueous solution of ammonia, containing 10 per cent. by weight of gaseous ammonia. Description and. Properties. - A colorless, transparent liquid, having a pungent odor, an acrid, alka...
-Drugs Acting Locally On Micro-Organisms
(Antiseptics). Many substances that act upon the protoplasm of living cells, either physically or chemically exert either a restrictive action on micro-organisms or are capable, according to the gr...
-L Oxidizing Germicides
Oxygen itself is not directly applicable as a germicide. In nature it undoubtedly plays an important part in general disinfection. Ozone, O3, as a gas has a feeble germicidal action. Wyssoko-witsch...
-Organic Peroxides
Organic peroxides have recently been manufactured. By replacing one of the hydrogens in H1O2, HOOH, by acetyl or benzoyl, CH3CO - O - OH, C6H5CO - O -OH, acetyl peroxide and benzoyl peroxides are form...
-Potassii Permanganas-Potassii Permangranatis -Potassium Permanganate. U. S. P
Definition. - It should contain not less than 99 per cent. of pure potassium permanganate. Origin. - Obtained by heating together caustic potash, potassium chlorate, and manganese dioxide. The pota...
-II. Metals And Their Salts
The metals and. their salts as a class are treated elsewhere in this volume, but a few words may be said concerning their action as germicides. They act as such largely because of the property of prec...
-III. Acids, Alkalies, Salts, Etc
Many of the acids and alkalies are active antiseptics. In weak solutions hindering the organisms in their growth, in stronger solutions killing them by withdrawing water, by coagulation of protoplasm,...
-Acidum Sulphurosum - Acidi Sulphurosi -Sulphurous Acid. U. S. P
Origin. - A liquid composed of not less than 6 per cent. by weight of sulphur dioxide and about 94 per cent. of water. Description and Properties. - A colorless liquid, of the characteristic odor o...
-Sodii Sulphis - Sodii Sulphltis - Sodium Sulphite. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by saturating a solution of sodium carbonate or caustic soda' with sulphur-dioxide gas. It should contain in the uneffloresced and air-dried condition not less than 96 per cent. of ...
-Sodii Thiosulphas - Sodii Thiosulphatis - Sodium Thiosulphate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by passing sulphurous anhydride into a solution of sodium carbonate with salts. It should contain not less than 98 per cent. of pure sodium thiosulphate. Description and. Propert...
-Boric Acid And Borates. Acidum Boricum - Acidi Borici - Boric Acid. U. S. P
(Boracic Acid.) Origin. - Found native in Northern Tuscany. It may be prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid on borax, filtration, and recrystallization. Description and Properties. - Trans...
-Socdii Boras - Sodii Boratis - Sodium Borate. U. S. P
(Borax.) Origin. - Prepared by boiling together solutions of boric acid and sodium carbonate, the borax crystallizing out. It is also found in a native state on the shores of certain lakes and as a...
-Potassii Dichromas - Potassii Dichromatis - Potassium Dichromate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by roasting in a reverberatory furnace potassium carbonate and chrome-iron ore, with the addition of lime or chalk to prevent fusion. The potassium dichromate formed is separated by...
-Potassii Chloras - Potassii Chloratis - Potassium Chlorate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by passing chlorine into a mixture of potassium carbonate and slaked lime. By subsequent boiling in water the chlorate separates by crystallization. Description and Properties. -...
-Halogens
The haloid compounds of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine all possess specific germicidal properties. They depend for their action on the presence of the freed haloid substance. Fluorine is t...
-Liquor Chlori Compositus - Liquoris Chlori Com-Positi - Compound Solution Of Chlorine. U, S. P
Origin. - An aqueous solution of chlorine, containing when freshly prepared about 0.4 per cent. of chlorine, with some oxides of chlorine and potassium chloride. Description and Properties. - A cle...
-Calx Chlorinata - Calcis Chlorinatae - Chlorinated Lime. U. S. P
Origin. - A compound resulting from the action of chlorine upon calcium hydroxide, and containing not less than 35 per cent. of available chlorine. Description and Properties. - A white or grayish-...
-Liquor Sodae Chlorinatae - Liquoris Sodae Chlorin-Atae - Solution Of Chlorinated Soda. U. S. P
(Labarraque's Solution.) Origin. - An aqueous solution of several chlorine compounds of sodium, containing at least 2.4 per cent. by weight of available chlorine. Description and Properties. - A...
-Iodoformum- Iodoformi - Iodoform. U. S. P
Definition. - Triiodomethane, usually obtained by the action of iodine upon alcohol, in the presence of an alkali or alkali carbonate. Description and Properties. - Small, lemon-yellow, lustrous cr...
-Iodolum - Iodoli - Iodol. U. S. P
Definition. - Tetraiodopyrrol, a derivative of the base pyrrol (C4H5N), obtained by the direct action of iodine upon the base in the presence of alcohol. Description and Properties. - A light, gray...
-Iodolum - Iodoli - Iodol. U. S. P. Continued
Nervous System. - Large doses are apt to produce headache, restlessness, delirium, or stupor. The reflexes may be depressed, or in some cases choreic movements may appear. Muscular contractility and t...
-V. Aromatic And Fatty Compounds
This group is a large one. The differing compounds, modifications of the benzol nucleus, make a distinct series with closely related properties. ...
-Phenol - Phenolis - Phenol. U. S. P
(Acidum Carbolicum, U. S. P. 1890.) Definition. - Hydroxybenzene, obtained either from coal tar by fractional distillation and subsequent purification, or made synthetically. It should contain not ...
-Phenol Liquefactum - Phenolis Liquefacti -Liquefied Phenol. U. S. P
Definition. - A liquid composed of not less than 86.4 per cent., by weight, of absolute phenol and about 13.6 per cent., by weight, of water. It is prepared from phenol (Acidum Carbohcum, U. S. P.,...
-Cresol - Cresolis - Cresol. U. S. P
Definition. - A mixture of three isomeric cresols obtained from coal tar, freed from phenol, hydrocarbons, and water. Description and Properties, - A colorless or straw-colored refractive liqui...
-Liquor Cresolis Compositus - Liquoris Cresolis Compositi - Compound Solution Of Cresol. U. S. P
Definition. - Liquor Cresoli Saponatus is the official German title of a somewhat similar preparation. It is essentially a linseed-oil-soap solution of cresol of 50 per cent. strength; the soap dissol...
-Resorcinol - Resorcinolis - Resorcinol. U. S. P
Definition. - A diatomic phenol [metadihydroxybenzene, C6H4(OH)2 1:3] obtained usually by the reaction of fused sodium hydroxide upon sodium metabenzene-disulphonate. Origin. - Prepared by melting ...
-Allied And Derivative Compounds
Hydroquinol - Hydroquinone- Hydrochinone - Paradioxybenzene. - Colorless, odorless, dimorphous crystals, having a sweetish taste. Soluble in 17 parts of water, very soluble in hot water, alcohol, and ...
-Naphthalenum - Naphthaleni - Naphthalene. U. S. P
Origin. - A hydrocarbon (C10H8) obtained from coal-tar. Description and Properties. - Colorless, shining, transparent laminae, having a strong, characteristic odor resembling that of coal-tar, and ...
-Betanaphthol - Betanaphtholis - Betanaphthol. U. S. P
Origin. - A monatomic phenol occurring in coal-tar, but usually prepared artificially from naphthalene. Description and Properties. - Colorless or pale buff-colored, shining, crystalline lamince, o...
-The Phenol Ethers
To this group belong creosote and its constituents. The most important of these phenol ethers are: 1. Anisol: Methylphenol ether, CH5OCH3. 2. Phenetol: Ethylphenol ether, C6H5OC2H5. 3. Guaiac...
-Creosotum - Creosoti - Creosote. U. S. P
Origin. - A mixture of phenols and phenol derivatives, chiefly guaiacol and creosol, obtained during the distillation of wood-tar, preferably that derived from the Fagus silvatica L. or Fagus ferrugin...
-Guaiacol - Guaiacolis - Guaiacol. U. S. P
Definition. - One of the chief constituents of creosote; prepared either from beechwood tar, or synthetically. Description and Properties. - Either a clear, colorless or light yellow, oily fluid, o...
-Guaiacolis Benzoas - Guaiacolis Benzoatis - Guaiacol Benzoate(Benzosol)
- Origin, by heating on a water bath potassium guaiacol with benzosol-chloride: the impure benzosal-guaiacol formed is purified by recrystallization from alcohol. Description and Properties. - Colo...
-Guaiacolis Salicylas - Guaiacolis Salicylatis - Guaiacol Salicylate
(Guaia-Col-salol). - Origin, by the action of phosphorous oxychloride on a mixture of sodium-guaiacol and salicylate. It is analogous to salol. Description and Properties. - White, crystalline,...
-Sodii Phenolsulphonas - Sodii Phenolsulphonatis -Sodium Phenolsulphonate. U. S. P
(Sodium Sulphocarbolate. U. S. P., 1900.) Description and Properties. - Colorless, transparent, rhombic prisms, odorless, having a cooling, saline, slightly bitter taste. Somewhat efflorescent in d...
-Ichthyolum - Ichthyoli - Ichthyol
(Non-official.) Origin. - It is obtained by the destructive distillation of bituminous rock found near Seefeld in the Tyrolese Alps, which contains enormous quantities of semifossihzed fishes and m...
-Allied Drugs
Thiolum - Thioli - Thiol. - Origin. - This substance is prepared by heating brown-colored paraffin or gas oils with sulphur, and extracting the sulphurated, unsaturated hydrocarbons with alcohol. D...
-Aromatic Acids
These are characterized by their greatly reduced toxic action by means of the introduction of the acid radical, COOH. The most important are benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, and ortho-oxybenzoic acid or salicy...
-Benzoinum - Benzoini - Benzoin. U. S. P
Origin. - A balsamic resin obtained from Styrax Benzoin Dryander and other unidentified species of Styrax. A large tree indigenous in Sumatra and Java, and probably in Cochin-China and Siam. Descri...
-Acidum Benzoicum - Acidi Benzoici - Benzoic Acid. U. S. P
Origin. - An organic acid, C6H.5COOH, obtained from benzoin by sublimation, or prepared artificially. Description and Properties. - White or yellowish-white, lustrous scales or friable scales, havi...
-Official Salts Of Benzoic Acid
Ammonii Benzoas - Ammdnii Benzoatis - Ammonium Benzoate (U. S. P.). - Origin. - Dissolve benzoic acid in water of ammonia and distilled water, evaporate, and crystallize. It should contain not less th...
-Lithii Benzoas - Lithii Benzoatis - Lithium Benzoate (U.S. P.)
- Origin. -Prepared by decomposing lithium carbonate with benzoic acid. It should contain not less than 98.5 per cent. of pure lithium benzoate. Description and Properties. - A light white powder, ...
-Sodii Benzoas - Sodii Benzoatis - Sodium Benzoate (U. S. P.)
- Origin. -Prepared by decomposing sodium carbonate with benzoic acid. It should contain not less than 99 per cent. of pure sodium benzoate, C6H5.COONa. Description and Properties. - A white amorph...
-Bismothi Bonzoas - Bismothi Benzoatis - Benzoate Of Bismuth
Menthol Benzoas - Menthol Benzoatis - Benzoate of Menthol. - For external use. Other benzoic combinations of interest are: Benzanilid, an antipyretic for children. Dose, 1-8 grains (0.1-0.5 Gm.). B...
-Acidum Salicylicum - Acidi Salicylici - Salicylic Acid. U. S. P
Origin. - A monobasic organic acid (C6H4(OH)COOH 1: 2) existing naturally in combination in various plants [like Spiraea ulmaria (meadow-sweet), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), etc.], but chiefly...
-Acidum Salicylicum - Acidi Salicylici - Salicylic Acid. Continued
Treatment of Poisoning. - Diffusible stimulants, atropine, strychnine - the same treatment as in poisoning by acetanilid. Therapeutics. - Externally and Locally. - Salicylic acid has been satisfact...
-Phenylis Salicylas - Phenylis Salicylatis - Phenyl Salicylate. U. S. P
(Salol, U. S. P., 1890.) Origin. - The salicylic ether (C6H4(OH)COOC6H5 1:2) of phenyl prepared by heating salicylic acid with phenol in the presence of phosphorus pentachloride. Description and...
-Salicinum - Salicini - Salicin. U. S. P
Origin. - A glycosid obtained from several species of Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar). Description and Properties. - Colorless or white, silky, shining, crystalline needles, or a crystalline po...
-Oleum Gaultheriae - Olei Gaultheriae - Oil Of Wintergreen. U.S.P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from the leaves of Gaultheria procumbens L., a small evergreen plant indigenous in the northern hemisphere and bearing a scarlet, fleshy, berry-like fruit. Descri...
-Spiritus Gaultheriae - Spiritus Gaultheriae - Spirit Of Gaultheria (Essence Of Wintergreen)
- Dose, 1-2 fluidrams (4.0-8.0 Cc.) [30 minims (2 Cc), U. S. P.]. Physiological Action. - Externally and Locally. - Oil of winter-green is a stimulant and a powerful antiseptic. Internally. - It...
-Methylis Salicylas - Methylis Salicylatis - Methyl Salicylate. U. S. P
Definition. - An ester (C6H4(OH)COOCH3 1: 3) produced synthetically. It is the principal constituent of oil of gaultheria and oil of betula. Dose. - 15 minims (1 Cc), U. S. P. ...
-Oleum Betulae - Olei Betulae - Oil Of Birch. U. S. P
Definition. - A volatile oil obtained by maceration and distillation from the bark of the sweet birch, Betula lenta L. Dose. - 15 minims (1 Cc), U. S. P. Allied Compounds Aspirin, acetyl sali...
-Liquor Formaldehydi - Liquoris Formaldehydi -Solution Of Formaldehyde. U. S. P
Definition. - An aqueous solution containing not less than 37 per cent. by weight of absolute formaldehyde, H.COH. Properties. - Formaldehyde itself is a gas at ordinary temperatures, having a very...
-Balsamum Peruvianum - Balsami Peruviani -Balsam Of Peru. U.S.P
Origin. - A balsam obtained from Toluifera Pareirce (Royale) Baillon, a tree growing in Brazil and near the west coast of South America. Description and Properties. - A liquid having a syrupy consi...
-Volatile Oils, Resins, Oleoresins, Balsams
The following-named drugs, classed by some authors as aro-matics, are not only active antiseptics and antispasmodics, but possess properties very similar to those of the more typical antiseptics, anti...
-Aromatic Vehicles And Carminatives. Anisum - Anisi - Anise. U. S. P
Origin. - The ripe fruit of Pimpinella Anisum L., a plant indigenous in Western Asia and Egypt, and extensively cultivated in Europe. Description and Properties. - About 1/8-1/4 inch (3-6 Mm.) long...
-Oleum Anlsi - Olei Anisi - Oil Of Anise. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from anise or from the fruit of Star anise, Illicium verum. Description and Properties. - A colorless or pale-yellow, thin and strongly refractive liquid, having ...
-Cinnamomum - Cinnamomi - Cinnamon. U. S. P
Origin. - There are two official varieties of cinnamon: 1, the inner bark of the shoots of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyne, a tree about 30 feet high (9 M.), found in the forests of Ceylon (Ceylon cinnam...
-Oleum Cinnamomi - Olei Cinnamomi - Oil Of Cinnamon. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from Cassia cinnamon, yielding not less than 75 per cent. by volume of cinnamic aldehyde. Description and Properties. - A yellowish or brownish liquid, becoming d...
-Cinnaldehydum - Cinnaldehydi - Cinnamic Aldehyde. U. S. P
Definition. - An aldehyde, C6H5CH:CH.COH, obtained from oil of cinnamon or prepared synthetically. It is the chief and essential constituent of oil of cinnamon, and should be present to the extent of ...
-Coriandrum - Coriandri - Coriander. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried fruit of Coriandrum sativum L., an annual herb about 2 feet (60.0 Cm.) high, indigenous in China and on the northeastern shore of the Mediterranean. Cultivated in Asia, Europe, and...
-Oleum Coriandri - Olei Coriandri - Oil Of Coriander. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from coriander. Description and Properties. - A colorless or slightly yellowish liquid, having the characteristic aromatic odor of coriander and a warm, spicy tas...
-Foeniculum - Foeniculi - Fennel. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried, nearly ripe fruit of Faeniculum vulgare Miller, a herbaceous annual or perennial indigenous in Southern Europe and cultivated in Germany, Prance, and the United States. Descrip...
-Oleum Foenlculi - Olei Foeniculi - Oil Of Fennel. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from fennel. Description and Properties. - A colorless or pale-yellowish liquid, having the characteristic aromatic odor of fennel and a sweetish, mild, and spicy...
-Carum - Cari - Caraway. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried fruit of Carum Carvi L., a biennial plant native to Central and Western Asia. It is cultivated in Europe and in the United States. Description and Properties. - Oblong, laterall...
-Oleum Cari -Olei Cari - Oil Of Caraway. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from caraway. Description and Properties. - A colorless or pale-yellow, thin liquid, having the characteristic aromatic odor of caraway and a mild, spicy taste. S...
-Myrrha - Myrrhae - Myrrh. U. S. P
Origin. - A gum-resin obtained from Commiphora Myrrha (Nees) Engler, a shrub or small tree forming the chief underwood of the Arabian and African forests along the shores of the Red Sea. Descript...
-Eucalyptus. - Eucalyptus - Eucalypti .U. S. P
Origin. - The dried leaves of Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere, collected from the older part of the tree. The blue-gum tree is a rapid grower, attaining a height of 200 to 300 feet (60-90 M.). It is...
-Oleum Eucalypti - Olei Eucalypti - Oil Of Eucalyptus. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves of Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere and from other sources. Description and Properties. - A colorless or faintly yellowish liquid, having a...
-Eucalyptol - Eucalyptolis - Eucalyptol. U. S. P
Definition. - An organic oxide (cineol) obtained from the volatile oil of Eucalyptus globulus and from other sources. It is also found in a great many other volatile oils; oil of cajuput being one of ...
-Oleum Cajuputi - Olei Cajuputi - Oil Of Cajuput. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves and twigs of Melaleuca leucadendron L., a tree with crooked stem and scattered branches, resembling the weeping willow, indigenous in the East ...
-Cardamomum - Cardamomi - Cardamom. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried, nearly ripe fruit of Eleltaria repens (Sonnerat) Baillon, a perennial plant 6 to 10 feet (1.8-3.0 M.) high. Cardamom is indigenous in Hindustan, in the mountainous regions of M...
-Calamus - Calami - Calamus. U. S. P
(Sweet Flag.) Origin. - The unpeeled, dried rhizome of Acorus Calamus L., a plant indigenous in North America, Europe, and Western Asia, growing in swamps and along the shores of streams and ponds....
-Oleum Lavandulae Florum - Olei Lavandulae Florum - Oil Of Lavender Flowers. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from fresh flowering tops of Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender is a native to Southern Europe and cultivated in gardens. Description and Properties. - A color...
-Mentha Piperita - Menthae Piperitae - Peppermint. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried leaves and flowering tops of Mentha piperita Smith, a perennial plant found in damp places in England and other European countries and in North America. Peppermint contains abou...
-Oleum Menthae Piperitae - Olei Menthae Piperitae - Oil Of Peppermint. U, S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from the fresh or partly dried leaves and flowering tops of peppermint, yielding not less than 8 per cent. of ester, calculated as menthyl acetate, and not less than...
-Menthol - Mentholis - Menthol. U. S. P
Definition. - A secondary alcohol, C6H9(CH3)(OH)(C3H7) 1:3 14, obtained from the oil of Mentha piperita L. or other peppermint oils. Description and Properties. - Colorless, acicular, or prismatic ...
-Mentha Viridis - Menthae Viridis - Spearmint. U. S. P
Definition. - The dried leaves and flowering tops of Mentha spicata L. This is one of the mints, found in the same localities as peppermint, and containing, like the latter drug, a volatile oil for...
-Thymol - Thymol - Thymol. U. S. P
Origin. - A phenol, C6H3.(CH3).(OH)(C3H7) 1:3:4, occurring in the volatile oils of Thymus vulgaris L., and in some other volatile oils. Description and Properties - Large, colorless, translucent cr...
-Iodide. U. S. P
(Aristol.) Definition. - Dithymol-diiodide, (C6H1.CH3. C3H7OI)2, obtained by the condensation of two molecules of thymol (a methylisopropylphenol) and the introduction into its phenolic group of tw...
-Condiment Group. Capsicum - Capsici - Capsicum. U. S. P
(Cayenne Pepper.) Origin.The dried ripe fruit of Capsicum fastigiatum Blume, deprived of its calyx. Capsicum fastigiatum is a small crooked-branched shrub, 1 to 2 feet (30.0-60.0 Cm.) high, indigen...
-Piper - Piperis - Pepper. U. S. P
(Black Pepper.) Origin. - The dried unripe fruit of Piper nigrum L., a knotted, pointed-branched, aromatic, climbing shrub, indigenous in India, and cultivated in many of the East Indian and Philip...
-Derivative Compound
Piperonal - Heliotropin. - Obtained from piperic acid by oxidation. It occurs in small white crystals, soluble in about 600 parts of cold water, and very readily soluble in alcohol and ether. The dose...
-Myristica - Myristicae - Nutmegr. U.S. P
Macis - Macis - Mace. Definition. - The kernel of the ripe seeds of Myristica fragrans Houttuyn. Origin. - The seed (Myristica) and the membrane, arillode, investing the kernel (Mace) of Myris...
-Oleum Myristic - Olei Myristicae - Oil Of Nutmeg. V. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from myristica. Description and Properties. - A thin, colorless, or pale-yellowish liquid, having the characteristic odor of nutmeg, and a warm, spicy taste. It b...
-Caryophyllus - Caryophylli - Cloves. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried flower buds of Eugenia aromatica (L.) O. Kuntze, a hardwood, shrubby evergreen. It was originally found in the Molucca Islands, whence it was introduced and cultivated among the Ea...
-Oleum Caryophylli - Olei Caryophylli - Oil Of Cloves. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from cloves, yielding not less than 80 per cent. by volume of eugenol. Description and Properties. - A pale-yellow, thin liquid, becoming darker and thicker by ag...
-Allied Compounds And Derivatives
Benzoyl -eugenol. - Origin. - From eugenol. Description and Properties. - It occurs in neutral, odorless, colorless, acicular crystals, having a feebly bitter taste; soluble in hot alcohol, ether, ...
-Pimenta - Pimentae - Pimenta. U. S. P
(Allspice.) Origin. - The dried, nearly ripe fruit of Pimenta officinalis Lindley, an evergreen tree about 30 feet (9 M.) high, indigenous in the West Indies, Central America, and the northern part...
-Oleum Pimenta - Olei Pimentae - Oil Of Allspice. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from pimenta, yielding not less than 65 per cent. by volume of eugenol. Description and Properties. - A colorless or pale-yellow liquid, having a strong, aromatic...
-Zingiber - Zingiberis - Ginger. U. S. P
Origin. - The dry rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, a perennial herb indigenous in tropical Asia and now cultivated in most tropical countries. Description and Properties. - A thick, flattish ...
-III. Aromatics Used For Their Supposed Antispasmodic Action On The Nervous System. Asafoatida - Asafoetidae - Asafetida. U. S. P
Origin. - A gum-resin obtained from the root of Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel, and probably other species of Ferula, large perennial herbs found in Turkestan, Western Thibet, and Western Afghanistan. ...
-Camphora - Camphorae - Camphor. U. S. P
Definition. - The dextrogyrate modification of the saturated ketone, C9H16CO, obtained from Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees et Ebermaier, and purified by sublimation. The camphor laurel is a handsome...
-Camphora Monobromata - Camphorae Monobromatae - Monobromated Camphor (U. S. P.)
- Definition. - A substitution compound of camphor, C9H15BrCO. Origin. - Prepared by heating camphor and bromine, dissolving in benzin, and crystallizing from hot alcohol. Description and Proper...
-Acidum Camphoricum - Acidi Camphorici - Camphoric Acid (U. S. P.)
-Definition. - A dibasic organic acid, C8H14(COOH)2, obtained by the oxidation of camphor. Origin. - Obtained by the oxidation of camphor through the action of nitric acid. Description and Prope...
-Valeriana - Valerianae - Valerian. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried rhizome and roots of Valeriana officinalis L., an herbaceous perennial 2 to 4 feet (0.6-1.2 M.) high, a native of Europe, and cultivated to some extent in New England and New York....
-Ammonii Valeras - Ammonii Valeratis - Ammonium Valerate (U. S. P.)
Definition. - It should contain not less than 98 per cent. of pure ammonium valerate, C4H9COONH4. Origin. - Obtained by saturating valerianic acid with gaseous ammonia and crystallizing. Descrip...
-Zinci Valeras - Zinci Valeratis - Zinc Valerate (U. S. P.)
- Definition. - It should contain not less than 99 per cent. of pure zinc valerate (C4H9COO3)ZN + 2H1O. Origin. - Obtained by evaporating hot solutions of zinc sulphate and sodium valerianate, the ...
-Antipyretics And Antipyretic Analgesics
In the attempt to make an artificial quinine when it was pointed out that that alkaloid was a derivative of quinolene, a host of new bodies which have become of immense importance in modern therapeuti...
-Quinolin Group. Cinchona - Cinchonae - Cinchona. U. S. P
Definition. - The dried bark of Cinchona Ledgeriana Moene, Cinchona Calisaya Weddell, Cinchona officinclis L., and of hybrids of these with other species of Cinchona. It should yield not less than 5 p...
-Cinchona Rubra - Cinchonae Rubral - Red Cinchona. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried bark of Cinchona succirubra Pavon, and of its hybrids containing not less than 5 per cent. of its anhydrous cinchona alkaloids. Description and Properties. - In quills or in cur...
-Official Preparations Of Cinchona
Fluidextractum Cinchonae - Fluidextracti Cinchonae - Fluidextract of Cinchona. - Dose, 10-60 minims (0.6-4.0 Cc.) [15 minims (1 Cc), U. S. P.]. Tinctura Cinchonae - Tincturae Cinchonae - Tincture o...
-Official Preparation Of Cinchona Rubra
Tinctura Cinchonae Composita - Tincturae Cinchonae Compositae - Compound Tincture of Cinchona (10 per cent. with bitter orange peel 8 per cent., and serpentaria 2 per cent.). - Dose, 1-4 fluidrams (4....
-Official Alkaloids And Salts
Cinchonidinae Sulphas - Cinchonidinae Sulphatis - Cinchonidine Sulphate. - Description and Properties. - White, silky, acicular crystals, without odor, and having a very bitter taste; slightly efflore...
-Quininae Sallcylas - Quininae Salicylatis - Quinine Salicylate (U. S. P.)
- Definition. - The salicylate, 2C20H14N2O2.C7H6O3 + H1O, of the alkaloid quinine. Description and Properties. - Colorless needles, permanent in air, but acquiring a pinkish tinge after a time. So...
-Unofficial Alkaloids, Salts, And Other Quinolines
Chinoidinum - Chinoidini - Chinoidine. - Origin. - Obtained from the mother-liquor in the preparation of quinine sulphate, cinchonine, and the other alkaloids of cinchona. Description and Propertie...
-Chinolin - Chinolin - Chinolin (Quinolin)
- Origin. - Prepared from cinchonine or quinine by distillation, or obtained synthetically. Description and Properties. - A colorless liquid, with an aromatic, pungent odor; slightly soluble in wat...
-Chinolin - Chinolin - Chinolin (Quinolin). Part 2
Quinine retards or impairs all the oxidizing powers of the body, and materially lessens the oxygen-carrying capacity of the red corpuscles. This is shown in the diminished metabolism of the body. N...
-Chinolin - Chinolin - Chinolin (Quinolin). Part 3
Internally. - Undoubtedly the principal use of quinine is in the treatment of malarial diseases. When we realize that quinine in 1 part to 20,000 is sometimes destructive of the plasmodium mala-riae, ...
-Pyrrhol Group
These bodies are derivatives of pyrrazol. Thus pyrrhol, by the replacing of another is converted into pyrrazol. In antipyrine, a phenol radical is substituted for the NH of pyrrhol, and ...
-Antipyrina - Antipyrinse - Antipyrine. U. S. P
Definition. - Phenyldimethylpyrazolon obtained by the condensation of phenyl-hydrazine with aceto-acetic ether and methylation of the product. Description and Properties. - A white, crystalline pow...
-Hydrazine Derivatives
Practically none of the hydrazines is in use at present. Phenyl-hydrazine, pyrodine, a related compound, antithermine, orthin, and agathine, a salicylic acid substitution product, were at one time in ...
-The Anilines
A large number of very valuable analgesic antipyretics have found a definite place in practical medicine. Their number is liable to increase very materially. In general the pharmacodynamic action of a...
-Acetanildum1 - Acetanildi - Acetanilid. U. S. P
Origin. - The monacetyl derivation of aniline. Description and Properties. - White, shining, micaceous, crystalline laminae, or a crystalline powder, odorless, faintly burning taste, permanent in a...
-Exalgine
(Methylacetanilide). Origin. - As the chemical name indicates, this substance is a derivative of acetanilid. Description and Properties. - Exalgine occurs in colorless needles or prisms, inodoro...
-Acetphenetidinum - Acetphenetidini - Acetphenetidin. U. S. P
(Phenacetin.) Description. - The derivation of acetphenetidin is shown by the following formulas: Phenol. Para-amidophenol. Para-phenetidin (Paraamido-phenetol). Acet-paraphenetidin...
-Phenocoll
Origin. - Amido-acetparaphenetidin, a glycocoll derivative of phenetidin. The phenocoll hydrochloride is the salt used in medicine. Description and Properties. - A white, crystalline powder, solubl...
-Restoratives And Alteratives
These old terms of the Materia Medica are here retained for purposes of convenience. By them is meant that certain substances exert a distinct influence on the metabolism of many of the bodily organs,...
-Restoratives. Ferrum - Ferri - Iron. U. S. P
Definition. - Metallic iron, in the form of fine, bright, and non-elastic wire. ...
-Preparations Of Iron
F6rrum Reductum - Ferri Reducti - Reduced Iron (U. S. P.). (Iron by Hydrogen; Quevenne's Iron.) - Origin. - Obtained by passing hydrogen through a hot, closed tube containing freshly prepared and thor...
-Preparations Of Iron. Part 2
Dose. - 5-20 grains (0.3-1.20 Gm.), in solution. Vinum Ferri - Vini Ferri -Wine of Iron (U. S. P.). - Composition. - Iron and ammonium citrate, tincture of sweet-orange peel, syrup, and water. D...
-Preparations Of Iron. Part 3
Dose. - 5-20 grains (0.3-1.2 Gm.) [4 grains (0.25 Gm.), U. S. P.]. Ferri Phosphas Solubilis - Ferri Phosphatis Solubilis - Soluble Ferric Phosphate (U. S. P.). - Description and Properties. - Thin,...
-Preparations Of Iron. Part 4
Dose. - 1-3 grains (0.06-0.18 Gm.). Used externally as a hemostatic. Other newer preparations of iron are Feralboid, a peptonized albuminate of iron; Fercremol, a compound of hemoglobin and iron, c...
-Preparations Of Iron. Part 5
Such careful pharmacologists as Bunge, Schmiedeberg, and Hamburger claimed that inorganic preparations of iron are neither absorbed nor assimilated, maintaining that the blood and hemoglobin are influ...
-Manganese
This metal is a normal constituent of the body, existing in appreciable, though minute, quantities in the blood, bile, etc. From the fact of its presence in the blood, and because of the similarity of...
-Mangani Dioxidum Precipitatum - Mangani Dioxidi Precipitatae - Precipitated Manganese Dioxide. U. S. P
Definition. - Chiefly manganese dioxide with small amounts of other oxides of manganese, corresponding to not less than 80 per cent. of manganese dioxide. Origin. - Manganese sulphate, 50; ammonia ...
-Mangani Hypophosphis - Mangani Hypophosphis - Manganese Hypophosphites. U. S. P
Definition. - It should contain not less than 97 per cent. of pure manganese hypophosphite (Mn(PH1O2)2 +H1O). Dose. - Average dose: 3 grains (0.2 Gm. = 200 milligrammes) (U. S. P.). It is contained...
-Mangani Sulphas - Mangani Sulphatis - Manganese Sulphate. U. S. P
Origin. - Obtained by heating manganese dioxide with sufficiently strong sulphuric acid, evaporation, and crystallization. Description and Properties. - Colorless or pale rose-colored, transparent,...
-Phosphorus - Phosphori - Phosphorus. U. S. P
Definition. - It should contain not less than 99.5 per cent. of pure phosphorus. Origin. - It exists, chiefly as phosphates, in many minerals and in all plants and animals. It is prepared by treati...
-Phosphorus - Phosphori - Phosphorus. U. S. P. Part 2
Temperature. - Owing to capillary expansion, the superficial temperature is at first slightly raised, being subsequently diminished. Evaporation and radiation, arising from profuse diaphoresis, contri...
-Phosphorus - Phosphori - Phosphorus. U. S. P. Part 3
Clinical experience has certainly demonstrated its utility as a nutrient tonic to the nervous and osseous tissues. In neurasthenia and chronic nervous exhaustion it is highly efficacious. Some cases o...
-Arsenic. Arseni Trioxidum - Arseni Trioxidi - Arsenic Trioxide. U. S. P
(Acidum Arsenosum. U. S. P., 1890.) Origin. - Arsenic has been found in minute proportions in many mineral waters. It is obtained in large quantities by roasting arsenical ores - cobalt, nickel, ti...
-Arseni Iodidum - Arseni Iodidi - Arsenic Iodide. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by triturating in a mortar finely powdered metallic arsenic and iodine until they are thoroughly mixed; or by mixing solutions of arsenous and hydri-odic acids, and evaporating. It ...
-Sodii Arsenas - Sodii Arsenatis - Sodium Arsenate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by heating to redness arsenous acid, sodium nitrate, and sodium carbonate. Dissolve the fused mass in water and crystallize. Dissolve crystals in water and recrystallize. It should ...
-Sodii Arsenas Exsiccatus - Sodii Arsenatis Exsiccati - Exsiccated Sodium Arsenate. U. S. P
(Also known as Anhydrous Sodium Arsenate.) Description and Properties. - An amorphous, odorless, white powder, Na2HASO4. Permanent in dry air. Soluble in 3 parts of water; very soluble in boiling w...
-Sodii Arsenatis Exsiccati - Exsiccated Sodium Arsenate. Continued
An eruption resembling that of measles, produced by 3 drops (0.18 Cc.) of Fowler's solution, is reported by Macnal (Medical Times and Gazette, 1868). Falck reports a case in which arsenic produced a d...
-Hydrargyrum - Hydrargyri - Mercury. U. S. P
(Quicksilver.) Origin. - The knowledge of this drug antedates the Christian era. It is found in Spain, Austria, Peru, and China, but is obtained principally from New Almaden, California. It occurs ...
-Hydrargyrum - Hydrargyri - Mercury. U. S. P. Part 2
Dose. - 1/2-1/2 grain (0.01-0.03 Gm.) [1/5 grain (0.01 Gm.), U. S. P.]. Hydrargyri Iodidum Rubrum - Hydrargyri Iodidi Rubri - Red mercuric Iodide (U.S. P.) (Biniodide of Mercury - Red Iodide of Mer...
-Hydrargyrum - Hydrargyri - Mercury. U. S. P. Part 3
Internally. - Digestive System. - The action of the soluble and insoluble salts is distinct. The line between physiological action and toxic action is difficult to draw. The soluble salts are, even in...
-Hydrargyrum - Hydrargyri - Mercury. U. S. P. Part 4
Therapeutics. - Externally and Locally. - As a germicide, antiseptic, and antiparasitic the preparations of mercury are extremely valuable; the corrosive chloride of mercury being extensively employed...
-Iodine And The Iodides. Iodum - Iodi - Iodine. U. S. P
Origin. - It is found in the ashes of sea-weeds, and is prepared from the mother liquor obtained in the purification of Chili saltpetre. Description and Properties. - Heavy, bluish-black, dry and f...
-Acidum Hydriodicum Dilutum - Acidi Hydriodici Diluti - Diluted Hydriodic Acid. U. S. P
Definition. - A solution of hydriodic acid, HI, containing not less than 10 per cent. by weight of the absolute acid, and about 90 per cent. of water. Description and Properties. - A clear, colorle...
-Syrupus Acidi Hydriodidi - Syrupi Acidi Hydriodidi - Syrup Of Hydriodic Acid. U. S. P
A syrupy liquid containing about 1 per cent. by weight of absolute hydriodic acid. Description and Properties. - A transparent, colorless, or only pale-straw colored liquid, odorless, and having a swe...
-Ammonii Iodidum - Ammonii Iodidi - Ammonium Odide. U. S. P
Origin. - It is prepared by dissolving potassium iodide and ammonium sulphate in boiling water, adding alcohol, filtering, washing the filtrate, and evaporating it to dryness. Description and Prope...
-Potassii Iodidum - Potassii Iodidi - Potassium Iodide. U. S. P
Origin. - Iodine is dissolved in a solution of potassa in hot distilled water. The solution is evaporated, and the residue heated with charcoal. Dissolve in boiling water, filter, wash the filtrate, a...
-Sodii Lodidum - Sodii Iodidi - Sodium Iodide. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared from a solution of soda in a manner similar to the preparation of potassium iodide. Description and Properties. - Colorless, cubical crystals, or a white, crystalline powder, odo...
-Strontii Lodidum - Strontii Iodidi - Strontium Iodide. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by neutralizing freshly prepared solution of hydriodic. acid with strontium carbonate, concentrating the filtrate, and crystallizing. Description and Properties. - Colorless, tra...
-Zinci Lodidum - Zinci Iodidi - Zinc Iodide. U. S. P
Origin. - Obtained by dissolving zinc oxide or carbonate in hydriodic acid, or digesting granulated zinc in 10 parts of iodine and 20 parts of water, and evaporating to dryness. Description and Pro...
-Sulphuris Iodidum - Sulphuris Iodidi - Sulphur Iodide. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by heating washed sulphur and iodine in a flask until the ingredients combine. Description and Properties. - Brittle masses, of a crystalline fracture and a grayish-black, metall...
-Plumbi Lodidum - Plumbi Iodidi - Lead Iodide. U. S. P
See Lead. Other compounds of iodine, used internally, are numerous. Some of those more recently brought to the practitioner's attention are: Iodic acid and its compound; iodine tribromide; iodine t...
-Plumbi Lodidum - Plumbi Iodidi - Lead Iodide. U. S. P. Continued
An early symptom is a strong metallic taste in the mouth, together with increased salivation. Suppression of urine, hiccough, and dysenteric pain have been reported in a fatal case resulting from exte...
-Colchicum - Colchici - Colchicum. U. S. P
(Meadow Saffron.) Origin. - The dried corm and seed of Colchicum autumnale, known respectively as Colchici cormus and Colchici seminis. A plant indigenous in Europe, in the southern and central por...
-Colchicina - Colchicinae - Colchicine, U. S. P
- Definition. - An alkaloid, C22H15NO6, obtained from colchicum. Although classed with the alkaloids, colchicine has an acid reaction. Character. - Pale-yellow leaflets or a pale-yellow amorphous p...
-Official Preparation Of The Root
Extractum C61chici Cormi - Extracti Colchici Cormi - Extract of Colchi-cum Corm. - Dose, 1/2-2 grains (0.03-0.12 Gm.). ...
-Official Preparations Of The Seed
Fluidextractum Co1chici Seminis - Fluidextracti Co1chici Seminis - Fluid-extract of Colchicum Seed. - Dose, 1-5 minims (0.06-0.3 Cc), U. S. P. Tinctura Colchici Seminis - Tincturae Colchici Seminis...
-Sarsaparilla - Sarsaparillae - Sarsaparilla. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried root of Smilax medica Chamisso and Schlechtendal, Smilax ornata Hooker, Smilax papyracea Duhamel, or a dried root known commercially as Honduras Sarsaparilla, which is probably obt...
-Stillingria - Stillingiae - Stillingia. U. S. P
(Queen's Root.) Origin. - The dried root of Stillingia sylvatica L., a perennial herb growing in dry and sandy soil in the Southern United States as far north as Eastern Virginia. Description an...
-Guaiacum - Gualaci - Guaiac. U. S. P
Origin. - The resin of the wood of Guaiacum officinale L., or of Guaiacum sanctum L. Description and Properties. - Irregular masses or subglobular pieces, externally greenish-brown, internally of a...
-Acids - Alkali Es - Salts. Acids. Mineral Acids
There are certain characteristics common to all the mineral acids which claim primary attention: Concentrated mineral acids are caustic to a greater or less degree. They combine with alkalies an...
-Acidum Hydrochloricum - Acidi Hydrochlorici -Hydrochloric Acid. U. S. P
(Muriatic Acid). Origin. - A liquid composed of 31.9 per cent. by weight of absolute hydrochloric acid (HCL = 36.38) and 68.1 percent, of water. Description and Properties. - A colorless, fuming...
-Acidum Phosphoricum - Acidi Phosphorici -Phosphoric Acid. U. S. P
Origin. - A liquid composed of not less than 85 per cent. by weight of absolute orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4 = 97.8) and not more than 15 per cent. of water. Description and Properties. - A colorles...
-Acidum Sulphuricum - Acidi Sulphurici - Sulphuric Acid. U. S. P
Origin. - A liquid composed of not less than 92.5 per cent. by weight of absolute sulphuric acid (H1SO4 = 97.82) and not more than 7.5 per cent. of water. Description and Properties. - A colorless ...
-Acidum Nitricum - Acidi Nitrici - Nitric Acid. U. S. P
Origin. - A liquid composed of 68 per cent. by weight of absolute nitric acid (HNO3 == 62.89) and 32 per cent of water. Description and Properties. - A colorless, fuming liquid, very caustic and co...
-Acidum Nitricum - Acidi Nitrici - Nitric Acid. U. S. P. Continued
Treatment of Poisoning. - This should be prompt. The cautious administration of alkalies is indicated to neutralize the acid, though the evolution of carbonic-acid gas resulting from some may rupture ...
-Organic Acids. Acidum Lacticum - Acidi Lactici - Lactic Acid. U. S. P
Origin. - An organic acid usually obtained by subjecting milk sugar or grape sugar to lactic fermentation. It is composed of 75 per cent. by weight of absolute lactic acid (CHC3H5O3 = 89.79) and 25 pe...
-Acidum Aceticum - Acidi Acetici - Acetic Acid. U. S. P
Origin. - A liquid composed of 36 per cent. by weight of absolute acetic acid (HC2H3O.2= 59.86) and 64 per cent. of water. Description and Properties. - A clear, colorless liquid, having a strong, ...
-Acidum Citricum - Acidi Citrici - Citric Acid. U. S. P
Definition. - A tribasic organic acid, C3H4(OH) (COOH)3+ H1O, usually prepared from the juice of limes or lemons. Description and Properties.Colorless, translucent, right-rhombic prisms; odorless, ...
-Acidum Tartaricum - Acidi Tartarici - Tartaric Acid. U. S. P
Definition. - A dibasic organic acid, C2H1(OH)2(COOH)2, usually prepared from argol. Description and Properties. - Colorless, translucent, monoclinic prisms, or crystalline crusts, or a white powde...
-Sodium Salts. Sodium Chloridi - Sodii Chloridi - Sodium Chloride. U. S. P
Description and Properties. - Colorless, transparent, cubical crystals, or a white, crystalline powder, odorless, and having a purely saline taste. Permanent in dry air. Soluble in 2.8 parts of water ...
-Liquor Sodii Hydroxidi - Liquoris Sodii Hydroxidi - Solution Of Sodium Hydroxide. U. S. P
(Solution of Sodium Hydrate.) Origin. - An aqueous solution containing about 5 per cent. of sodium hydrate, NAOH = 39.76. Description and Properties. - A clear, colorless liquid, odorless, havin...
-Sdii Acetas - Sodii Acetatis - Sodium Acetate. U. S. P
Origin. - It may be obtained by neutralizing acetic acid with sodium carbonate. The usual article, however, is manufactured on a large scale in the United States in the process of purifying acetic aci...
-Sodii Bicarbonas - Sodii Bicarbonatis - Sodium Bicarbonate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by saturating a mixture of 2 parts of crystallized, and 3 parts of dried, sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide, generated by the action of hydrochloric acid upon marble. The damp sa...
-Sodii Carbonas Monohydratus - Sodii Carbonatis Monohydrati - Monohydrated Sodium Carbonate. U. S. P
Origin. - Obtained from sodium sulphate and sodium chloride, but chiefly by a complicated process, known as Leblanc's, from sodium sulphate, which is mixed with chalk and coal, the mixture ignited, an...
-Sodii Citras - Sodii Citratis - Sodium Citrate. U. S. P
Description and Properties. - hite, granular powder, odorless, 2Na3C6H5O7'+ 11H1O. It slowly effloresces on exposure to dry air. Soluble in 1.1 parts of cold water and in 0.4 part of boiling water; sl...
-Sodii Phosphas Exsiccatus - Sodii Phosphatis Ex-Siccati - Exsiccated Sodium Phosphate. U. S. P
Description and Properties. - This is also called anhydrous sodium phosphate, Na2HPO4; it is obtained by driving off the water of crystallization of sodium phosphate (U. S. P.), which amounts to 60.3 ...
-Sodii Phosphas Effervescens - Sodii Phosphatis Effervescentis - Effervescent Sodium Phosphate. U. S. P
Description and Properties. - Composed of the exsiccated sodium phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, and tartaric and citric acids. It contains sufficient sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the tartaric and c...
-Potassium Compounds. Liquor Potassii Hydroxidi - Liquoris Potassii Hydroxidi - Solution Of Potassium Hydroxide. U. S. P
Origin. - An aqueous solution containing about 5 per cent. of potassium hydrate. Description and Properties. - A clear, colorless liquid, odorless, having a very acrid and caustic taste and a stron...
-Acetate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by the action of acetic acid upon potassium carbonate. Description and Properties. - A white powder or crystalline masses, of a satiny lustre, odorless, and having a warm, saline...
-Potassii Bicarbonas - Potassii Bicarbonatis -Potassium Bicarbonate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by the action of carbon dioxide upon a solution of the carbonate. Description and Properties. - Colorless, transparent, monoclinic prisms, odorless, and having a saline and sligh...
-Potassii Bitartras - Potassii Bitartratis - Potassium Bitartrate. U. S. P
(Cream of Tartar.) Origin. - Prepared by purifying and crystallizing argol or crude tartar, a residuum of grape-juice after fermentation. Description and Properties. - Colorless or slightly opaq...
-Potassii Carbonas - Potassii Carbonatis - Potassium Carbonate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared from the ash obtained from the residue of the beet-sugar manufacture. It may also be obtained from wood-ashes. Description and Properties. - A white, granular powder, odorless, a...
-Potassii Citras - Potassii Citratis - Potassium Citrate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by the action of citric acid upon a solution of potassium carbonate. Description and Properties. - Transparent, prismatic crystals, or a white, granular powder, odorless, and hav...
-Preparations Of Calcium. Calcii Carbonas Praecipitatus - Calcii Carbonatis Prsecipitati - Precipitated Calcium Carbonate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate, the resulting precipitate of calcium carbonate being purified. Description and Properties. - A fine white po...
-Creta Praeparata - Cretan Praparatae - Prepared Chalk. U. S. P
Origin. - Native calcium carbonate, freed from most impurities by elutriation. Description and Properties. - A white, amorphous powder, often molded into conical drops, odorless and tasteless, perm...
-Liquor Calcis - Liquoris Calcis - Solution Of Calcium Hydroxide. U. S. P
(Solution of Calcium Hydroxide; Lime Water.) Origin. - A saturated aqueous solution which should contain not less than 0.14 per cent. of pure calcium hydroxide. Description and Properties. - A c...
-Preparations Of Lithium. Lithii Carbonas - Lithii Carbonatis - Lithium Carbonate. U. S. .P
Origin. - Lithium is found in many mineral waters, the carbonate being prepared from lepidolite. Description and Properties. - A light, white powder, odorless, and having an alkaline taste; permane...
-Lithii Citras - Lithii Citratis - Lithium Citrate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by adding lithium carbonate to a solution of citric acid. Description and Properties. - A white powder, odorless, and having a cooling faintly alkaline taste; deliquescent on exp...
-Preparations Of Magnesium. Magrnesii Oxidum - Magrnesii Oxidi - Magnesia. U. S. P
(Light Magnesia; Calcined Magnesia.) Origin. - Prepared by subjecting magnesium carbonate to a low red heat in a Cornish or Hessian crucible closed loosely by a lid. Description and Properties. ...
-Magrnesii Oxidum Ponderosum - Magnesii Oxidi Ponderosi - Heavy Magrnesia. U. S. P
(Heavy Magnesia.) A white, dense, and very fine powder, which should conform to the reactions and tests for magnesia, from which it diners in not readily uniting with water to form a gelatinous hyd...
-Magnesii Carbonas - Magrnesii Carbonatis -Magnesium Carbonate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by evaporating to dryness the mixed solutions of magnesium sulphate and sodium carbonate, and purifying and drying the residue. Description and Properties. - Light, white, friabl...
-Preparations Of Ammonium. Ammonii Carbonas - Ammonii Carbonatis -Ammonium Carbonate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by a complicated process by heating in an iron or earthen retort a mixture of sal ammoniac and chalk. Description and Properties. - White, hard, translucent, striated masses havi...
-Ammonii Carbonas. Ammonii Carbonatis. Ammonium Carbonate. Part 2
Absorption and Elimination. - The potassium salts possess very high diffusive power. They are easily and quickly absorbed and rapidly excreted, the salts with vegetable acids being eliminated as alkal...
-Ammonium Carbonate. Ammonii Carbonas. Ammonii Carbonatis. Part 3
Sodium carbonate may be used for the same purposes as the bicarbonate, though probably inferior to it in all cases save infantile eczema capitis, in which condition it is a most valuable remedy for so...
-Nitrates. Potassii Nitras - Potassii Nitratis - Potassium Nitrate. U. S. P
(Nitre; Saltpetre.) Origin. - Purified from native saltpetre. Description and Properties. - Colorless, six-sided, rhombic prisms, or a crystalline powder; odorless, and having a cooling, saline,...
-Sodii Nitras - Sodii Nitratis - Sodium Nitrate. U. S. P
Origin. - It is found in great quantities imbedded in clay and sand in certain districts of Chili and Peru. Description and Properties. - Colorless, transparent, rhombohedral crystals, odorless, ha...
-Mineral Waters
The line of demarcation between mineral and ordinary waters cannot be definitely drawn. Although in the former there is usually present an increase of mineral constituents or of temperature, some drin...
-Alkaline
Adams, California. Albury, Vermont. Alma, Michigan. Alum, Virginia. Berkshire, Vermont. Borax, California. Blount, Alabama. Canon City, Colorado. Carlisle, Colorado. Congress, California. Elgin,...
-Purgative Saline
Alma, Michigan. Blue Lick, Kentucky. Crab Orchard, Kentucky. Elgin, Vermont. Esculapian, Kentucky. Harrodsburg, Kentucky. Midland, Michigan. Pagosa, Colorado. ...
-Saline
Fruit-Port Well, Michigan. Grand Haven, Michigan. Louisville Artesian, Kentucky. Michigan Congress, Michigan. Mt. Clemens, Michigan. Ocean, Alabama. St. Louis, Missouri. Salt, Vir...
-Sulphurous
Alpena, Michigan. Balston, New York. Bladon, Florida. Blue Lick, Kentucky. Carlisle, Pennsylvania. De Soto, Louisiana. Sheldon, Vermont. Summit, Maine. ...
-Thermal Springs
Agua Caliente, New Mexico. Arrow-Head, California. Buncombe County, North Carolina. Calistoga, California. Chalk Creek Hot, Colorado. Charleston Artesian, South. Carolina. Des Cahutes Hot, Oregon. ...
-Calcic
Bethesda, Wisconsin. Butterworth, Michigan. Birch-Dale, Vermont. Clarendon, Vermont. Eaton Rapid, Michigan. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Hubbardstown, Michigan. Silurian, Wisconsin. ...
-Chalybeate
Abbeville, South Carolina. Alma, Michigan. Bedford, Pennsylvania. Blossburg, Pennsylvania. Cooper's Well, Mississippi. Esbitt, Kentucky. Fayette, Pennsylvania. Dremion, Kentucky. French Lick, India...
-Drugs Acting Chiefly On The Gastrointestinal Organs. Bitters. Simple Bitters. Quassia - Quassiae - Quassia. U. S. P
Definition. - The wood of Picrasma excelsa (Swz.) Plancon, known commercially as Jamaica quassia or of Quassia amara L., known commercially as Surinam quassia. Description and Properties. - In the ...
-Gentiana - Gentianae - Gentian. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried rhizome and roots of Gentiana lutea L., a plant from 2 to 3 feet high, indigenous in the mountainous portions of Central Europe. Description and Properties. - It appears in near...
-Calumba - Calumbae - Calumba. U, S. P
(Columbo.) Origin. - The dried root of Jateorhiza palmata (Lam.) Miers., a plant native to the forests of Eastern Africa and Madagascar, and cultivated in the East Indies. Description and Proper...
-Calendula - Calendulae - Calendula. U. S. P
(Marigold.) Origin. - The dried ligulate florets of Calendula officinalis L., an annual plant, a native of the Levant and Europe, frequently cultivated as a garden ornament. Description and Prop...
-Chirata - Chiratae - Chirata. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried plant Swertia Chirayita (Rox.) Hamilton, an annual, native to Northern India. Description and Properties. - Chirata, as found in the shops, consists of short sections of the ste...
-Aromatic Bitters. Anthemis - Anthemidis - Anthemis. U. S. P
(Chamomile.) Origin. - The dried flower-heads of Anthemis nobilis L., a low perennial plant indigenous in Southern and Western Europe. Description and Properties. - Heads subglobular, about 3/4 ...
-Prunus Virginiana - Pruni Virginiana - Wild Cherry. U. S. P
Origin. - The bark of Prunus serotina Ehr, which should be collected in autumn. Description and Properties. - It is met with in curved pieces or irregular fragments 1/12 inch (2 Mm.) or more thick;...
-Serpentaria - Serpentariae - Serpentaria. U. S. P
(Virginia Snakeroot.) Origin. - The dried rhizome and root of Aristolochia Serpentaria L. (Virginia Serpentaria) or Aristolochia reticulata Nutt. (Texas Serpentaria), perennial herbs indigenous in ...
-Digestants. Pepsinum - Pepsini - Pepsin. U. S. P
Origin. - A proteolytic ferment or enzyme obtained from the glandular layer of fresh stomach of the hog Sus scrofa, and capable of digesting not less than 3000 times its own weight of freshly coagulat...
-Pancreatinum - Pancreatini - Pancreatin. U. S. P
Origin. - A mixture of the enzymes naturally existing in the pancreas of warmblooded animals, usually obtained from the fresh pancreas of the hog or the ox, and consisting principally of amylopsin, my...
-Papain, Papoid, Or Papayotin
(Non-official.) Origin. - The inspissated juice of the unripe fruit of Carica Papaya. Description and Properties. - A whitish, slightly astringent powder, soluble in water. Dose. - 1-8 grains (0...
-Amylolytic Enzymes
In the germination of many seeds the starches contained therein are converted by enzymes into soluble starch or sugars, and thus nourish the young plant. Many bacteria are capable of breaking down sta...
-Maltum - Malti - Malt. U. S. P
Definition. - The grain of barley, Hordeum distichon L., partially germinated artificially and then dried. ...
-Extractum Malti - Extracti Malti - Extract Of Malt. U. S. P
This and Maltum are reintroductions into the Pharmacopoeia of articles admitted to the 1880 revision but dismissed in 1890; it is contained in the National Formulary. Description and. Properties. -...
-Fats And Oils. Oleum Morrhuae - Olei Morrhuae - Cod-Liver Oil. U. S. P
Origin. - A fixed oil obtained from the fresh livers of Gadus morrrhua L. and other species of Gadus. Description and Properties. - A pale-yellow, thin, oily liquid, having a peculiar, slightly fis...
-Emulsum Olei Morrhuae - Emulsi Olei Morrhuae -Emulsion Of Cod-Liver Oil. U. S. P
A standard official preparation, containing 50 per cent. of cod-liver oil. It may be flavored to suit the taste, with oil of gaultheria, oil of bitter almond, etc. Dose. - Average dose: 2 fluidrams (8...
-Emetics
Emetics are agents which produce vomiting or emesis. Emesis is, in short, an antiperistaltic action, complex in its mechanism. Emetics are largely out of fashion in medicine at the present time, bu...
-Apomorphinae Hydrochloridum - Apomorphlnae Hydrochloridi - Apomorphine Hydrochloride. U. S. P
Origin. - The hydrochloride of an alkaloid prepared from morphine by the abstraction of one molecule of water. Description and Properties. - Minute, grayish-white, shining, acicular crystals, witho...
-Antimonii Et Potassii Tartras - Antimonii Et Potas-Sii Tartratis - Antimony And Potassium Tartrate. U. S. P
(Tartar Emetic; Tartrated Antimony.) Origin. - Antimony trioxide is mixed with acid potassium tartrate and water to the consistence of a paste, allowed to stand for twenty-four hours, boiled in wat...
-Ipecacuanhaipecacuanhseipecac. U. S. P
Definition. - The dried root, to which may be attached a portion of the stem, not more than 7 Cm. in length, of Cephaelis Ipecacuanha (Brotero) A. Richard, known commercially as Rio, Brazilian, or Par...
-Lobelia - Lobeliae - Lobelia. U. S. P
(Indian Tobacco.) Origin. - The dried leaves and tops of Lobelia inflata L., collected after a portion of the capsules have become inflated. The plant is indigenous in the United States. Descriptio...
-Cathartics
Cathartics or Purgatives are substances which cause evacuation of the bowels either by direct local irritation of the intestinal mucous membrane or by setting up an osmotic current from the tissues to...
-Cathartics. Continued
5. The ends of the afferent nerves passing from the intestinal mucous membrane to the brain; 6. The motor centers in the brain; 7. The ends of the motor nerves terminating in Auerbach's ganglia....
-Laxatives
Certain substances never produce active purgation, but simply unload the bowels by slightly increasing both peristalsis and secretion, expelling the feces in a softened, though solid and formed, condi...
-Cassia Fistula - Cassiae Fistulae - Cassia Fistula. U. S. P
(Purging Cassia.) Origin. - The dried fruit of Cassia Fistula L., a tree 30 to 50 feet (9-15 M.) high, indigenous in the East Indies. Description and Properties. - Cylindrical, 1 1/2 to 2 feet (...
-Oleum Ricini - Olei Ricini - Castor Oil. U. S. P
Origin. - A fixed oil compressed from the seed of Ricinus communis L., a plant indigenous in Southern Asia and cultivated in temperate countries for ornament and other purposes, remaining a large annu...
-Rhamnus Purshiana - Rhamni Purshianae -Cascara Sagrada. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried bark of Rhamnus Purshiana D. C, collected at least one year before being used. Rhamnus Purshiana is a shrub or small tree 15 to 20 feet (4.5-6 M.) high, indigenous on the Pacific c...
-Magrnesii Oxidum - Magrnesii Oxidi - Magnesium Oxidum. U.S. P
(Light Magnesia; Calcined Magnesia.) Origin, Description, and Properties given under Alkalies. Dose. - 5-60 grains (0.32-4.0 Gm.) [30 grains (2 Gm.), U. S. P.]. ...
-Magrnesii Carbonas - Magrnesii Carbonatis - Magnesium Carbonate. U. S. P
Origin, Description, and Properties given under Alkalies. Dose. - 1/4-2 drams (1.0-8.0 Gm.) [45 grains (3 Gm.), U. S. P.]. Physiological Action. - Both magnesia and magnesium carbonate are mild ant...
-Manna - Mannaemanna. U. S. P
Origin. - The concrete, saccharine exudation of Fraxinus Ornus L., a slender tree indigenous on the northern shore of the Mediterranean from Asia Minor west to Spain. Description and Properties. - ...
-Sulphur Sublimatum - Sulphuris Sublimati -Sublimed Sulphur. U. S. P
Origin. - Obtained from crude sulphur by sublimation. Description and Properties. - A fine yellow powder, having a slight characteristic odor and a faintly acid taste. Insoluble in water; slightly ...
-Taraxacum - Taraxaci - Taraxacum. U. S. P
(Dandelion.) Origin. - The dried root of Taraxacum officinale Weber, a perennial, acaulescent herb found in most countries of the northern hemisphere. Description and Properties. - Slightly coni...
-Simple Purgatives
These differ from laxatives only in degree, the former being more active, exciting greater peristaltic action and causing a larger secretion from the intestinal glands. Simple purgatives usually occas...
-Aloe - Aloes - Aloes. U. S. P
Origin. - The inspissated juice of the leaves of Aloe vera (L.) Webb; Aloe Perryi Baker, Aloe Chinensis Baker, or other species of Aloe, plants resembling the so-called century plant (Agave Americana)...
-Fel Bovis - Fellis Bovis - Oxgall. U. S. P
Origin. - The fresh bile of Bos Taurus L. Description and Properties. - A brownish-green or dark-green, somewhat viscid liquid, having a peculiar, unpleasant odor and a disagreeable, bitter taste. ...
-Rheum - Rhei - Rhubarb. U. S. P
Definition. - The dried rhizome of Rheum officinale Baillon, Rheum palmatum L., and the var. tanguticum Max. or other species of Rheum, grown in China or Thibet, and deprived of most of the bark and c...
-Euonymus - Euonymi - Euonymus. U. S. P
(Wahoo.) Origin. - The dried bark of the root of Euonymus atropurpureus Jacquin, a shrub 6 to 10 or 14 feet (1.8-3 or 4.2 M.) high, found growing in shady woods of the northern and middle section o...
-Leptandra - Leptandrae - Leptandra. U. S. P
(Culver's Root.) Origin. - The dried rhizome and roots of Veronica virginica L., a plant indigenous in Canada, and in the United States as far west as the Mississippi Valley. Description and Pro...
-Senna - Sennae - Senna. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried leaflets of Cassia acutifolia Delile (Alexandria senna) or of Cassia augustifolia Vahl (India senna), small shrubs found in Upper Egypt and southward to Nubia, Sennaar, and Kordofa...
-Hydragogue Purgatives
These drugs are more active than the preceding class, producing an abundant secretion from the intestinal mucous membrane, removing a large quantity of water from the blood-vessels, and producing seve...
-Oleum Tiglii-Olei Tig-LII-Croton Oil. V. S. P
Origin. - A fixed oil expreesed from the seed of Croton Tiglium L., indigenous in Hindustan and some of the East Indian and Philippine islands. Description and Properties. - A pale-yellow or browni...
-Elaterinum - Elaterini - Elaterin. U. S. P
Origin. - A neutral principle obtained from elateriam, a substance deposited by the juice of the fruit or Ecballium elaterium L., commonly known as squirting cucumber, a vine growing in the Mediter...
-Cambogia - Gambogiae - Gamboge. U. S. P
Origin. - A gum-resin obtained from Garcinia Hanburii Hooker filius, a medium-sized tree, indigenous in Siam, Cambodia, and Cochin-China. Description and Properties. - In cylindrical pieces, someti...
-Drastic Purgatives
These drugs are even harsher in their action than hydragogue purgatives, exciting violent peristalsis, and in large doses producing gastro-enteritis and all the symptoms occasioned by an irritant pois...
-Colocynthis - Colocynthidis - Colocynth. U. S. P
Origin. - The peeled, dried fruit of Citrullus Colocynthis Schroder. The colocynth plant is indigenous in Japan, and is cultivated and naturalized in Spain. Description and Properties. - From 2 to ...
-Jalapa - Jalapae - Jalap. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried tuberous root of Exogonium purga (Wend.) Bentham, yielding not less than 8 per cent. of total resin, but not more than 1.5 per cent. of resin soluble in ether. Jalap is a twining h...
-Scammonium - Scammonii - Scammony. U. S. P
Definition. - A gum resin obtained by incising the living root of Convolvulus Scammonia L. Scammony is an herbaceous, twining perennial, growing in Syria, Asia Minor, and Greece. Description and Pr...
-Podophyllum - Podophylli - Podophyllum. U. S. P
(May Apple.) Origin. - The dried rhizome and roots of Podophyllum peltatum L., an herbaceous perennial growing in rich woodlands in Canada and the United States. Description and Properties. - Of...
-Saline Cathartics. Liquor Magnesii Citratis - Liquoris Magnesii Citratis - Solution Of Magnesium Citrate. U. S. P
Formula: Dissolve magnesium carbonate, 15, in a solution of citric acid, 33; add syrup of citric acid, 60; then crystals of potassium bicarbonate, 2.5. Cork the bottle and wire immediately. The produc...
-Magnesii Sulphas - Magnesii Sulphatis - Magnesium Sulphate. U. S. P
(Epsom Salt.) Origin. - Obtained by the action of sulphuric acid upon native magnesium carbonate, treated with water, filtered, and the nitrate evaporated to crystallization. Description and Pro...
-Magnesii Sulphas Effervescens - Magnesii Sulpha-Tis Effervescentis - Effervescent Magnesium Sulphate. U. S. P
Magnesium sulphate, 500; sodium bicarbonate, 403; tartaric acid, 211; citric acid, 136. This may take the place of magnesii citras effervescens (U. S. P., 1890), which has been dropped. Dose. - ...
-Potassii Sulphas - Potassii Sulphatis - Potassium Sulphate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by adding potassium carbonate to acid potassium sulphate. Description and Properties. - Hard, colorless, transparent, six-sided, rhombic prisms terminated by pyramids, or in whit...
-Potassii Et Sodii Tartras - Potassii Et Sodii Tartratis - Potassium And Sodium Tartrate. U. S. P
(Rochelle Salt.) Origin. - Prepared by adding acid potassium tartrate to a hot solution of sodium carbonate. Description and Properties. - Colorless, transparent rhombic prisms, or a white powde...
-Sodii Phosphas - Sodii Phosphatis - Sodium Phosphate. U. S. P
(Sodium Orthophosphate.) Origin. - Prepared by digesting bone ash with sulphuric acid. The solution is filtered, and to it is added sodium carbonate, and the filtrate evaporated to crystallization....
-Sodii Sulphas - Sodii Sulphatis - Sodium Sulphate. U. S. P
(Glauber's Salt.) Origin. - The residue left in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid from salt is neutralized with sodium carbonate. Description and Properties. - arge, colorless, transparent, m...
-Anthelmintics
Anthelmintics are remedies which kill or expel intestinal worms. Those drugs which kill the parasites are called vermicides, and those which simply promote their expulsion are called vermifuges There ...
-Drugs Acting On Gastro-Intestinal Organs
Remedies employed against the Oxyuris vermicularis : A weak solution of Carbolic Acid,* Infusion of Quassia,* Decoction of Aloes,* Lime Water,* Calomel,*Oleum Terebinthinae.* Remedies employ...
-Oleum Chenopdii - Lei Chenopdii - Oil Of Chenopodium. U. S. P
(Oil of American Wormseed.) Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from chenopodium. Description and Properties. - A thin, colorless or yellowish liquid, having a peculiar penetrating, somewhat camp...
-Santnica - Santnicae - Santonica. U. S. P
(Levant Wormseed.) Origin. - The dried unexpanded flower-heads of Artemisia pauciflora Weber, a plant growing in Asia and exclusively collected iu Northern Turkestan. Description and Properties....
-Santoninum - Santonini - Santonin. U. S. P
Definition. - The inner anhydride or lactone of santonic acid, obtained from Santonica. Description and Properties. - Colorless, shining, flattened, prismatic crystals, odorless, and nearly tastele...
-Spigrelia - Spigeliae - Spigrelia. U. S. P
(Plnkroot. ) Origin. - The dried rhizome and roots of Spigelia marilandica L., a plant growing in rich shady woods, chiefly in the southern part of the United States, but found as far northward as ...
-Aspidium - Aspidii - Aspidium. U. S. P
(Male Fern.) Origin. - The dried rhizome of Dryopteris Filix mas Schott, or of Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gray, plants indigenous in North America, a portion of South America, Asia, Europe, and som...
-Cusso - Cusso - Kousso. U. S. P
(Brayera. ) Definition. - The dried pannicles of the pistillate flowers of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) Gmelin, a handsome tree, 40 to 50 feet (12-18 M.) high, indigenous on the table-land and in the...
-Granatum - Granati - Pomegranate. U. S. P
Origin. - The bark of the stem and root of Punica Granatum L., a shrub or small tree about 20 feet (6 M.) high, indigenous in Southwestern Asia from Northern India to Palestine. Description and Pro...
-Pepo - Peponis - Pumpkin Seed. U. S. P
Origin. - The ripe seed of Cucurbita pepo L., the common pumpkin, indigenous in tropical Asia and America, and cultivated throughout the temperate zones. Description and Properties. - About 3/4 inc...
-Drugs Acting On The Respiratory Mucous Membranes. Expectorants
Expectorants are drugs which stimulate, depress, or modify the secretion from the bronchial or laryngeal mucous membranes and promote.its expulsion. There are many drugs not classed as expectorants...
-Ammonii Chloridum - Ammonii Chloridi - Ammonium Chloride. U, S. P
Origin. - Ammonium sulphate is first formed by neutralizing gas liquor with sulphuric acid. After crystallization sublime with sodium chloride. Description and Properties. - A white, crystalline po...
-Glycyrrhiza - Glycyrrhizae - Glycyrrhiza. U. S. P
(Liquorice Root.) Origin. - The dried root of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., or of Glycyrrhiza glandu-lifera (Waldstein et Killaibel), a perennial plant indigenous in the countries lying on the northern an...
-Senega - Senegae - Senega. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried root of Polygala Senega L., a plant indigenous in North America, from Canada southward to South Carolina and westward to Wisconsin. Description and Properties. - About 4 inches ...
-Sanguinaria - Sanguinariae - Sanguinaria. U. S. P
( Blood-root.) Origin. - The dried rhizome of Sanguinaria Canadensis L., a low perennial, a native of Canada and the United States, where it grows in open woods in a rich soil. The rhizome should b...
-Balsamum Tolutanum - Balsami Tolutani - Balsam Of Tolu. U. S. P
Origin. - A balsam obtained from Toluifera Balsamum L., an evergreen tree from 60 to 80 feet (18-24 M.) high, growing in the high rolling country of Venezuela and New Granada. Description and Prope...
-Pix Liquida - Picis Liquidae - Tar. U. S. P
Definition. - A product obtained by the destructive distillation of the wood of Pinus palustris Miller, and other species of Pinus. Description and Properties. - Thick, viscid, semifluid, blackish-...
-Derivatives And Allied Drugs
Pixol. - A compound of tar soap and caustic potash or soda. Used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. Pix Betulae - Picis Betulae - Birch Tar (Oleum Rusci). - Origin. - Prepared in Russia from the woo...
-Terebenum - Terebeni - Terebene. U. S. P
Definition. - A liquid consisting chiefly of dipentene and other hydrocarbons, obtained by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid in oil of turpentine and subsequent rectification with them. Des...
-Terpini Hydras - Terpini Hydratis - Terpin Hydrate. U. S. P
Origin. - The hydrate of the diatomic alcohol terpin, prepared by mixing rectified oil of turpentine, alcohol, and nitric acid, allowing the mixture to stand for three or four days in shallow porcelai...
-Allied Compound
Terpinol is obtained by boiling terpin hydrate with dilute mineral acids. It occurs as an oily body with a hyacinthine odor. Insoluble in water, but readily soluble in alcohol and in ether. Terpino...
-Emmenagogues And Ecbolics
Emmenagogues are remedies which restore or increase the menstrual flow. They are divided, according to their action, into two classes. Those which act upon the uterine muscle or mucous membrane are sa...
-Sabina - Sabinae - Savine. U. S. P
Origin. - The tops of Juniperus Sabina L., a small evergreen procumbent or erect shrub, distributed throughout the greater portion of Europe, Siberia, Canada, and the Northern United States. Descri...
-Oleum Sabinae - Olei Sabinae - Oil Of Savine. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from the fresh tops of savine. Description and Properties. - A colorless or yellowish liquid having a pecular terebinthinate odor and a pungent, bitterish, and ca...
-Ruta - Rutae - Rue
(Non-official,) Origin. - The leaves of Ruta graveolens L., an herbaceous or suffruticose perennial 2 or 3 feet (60 or 90 Cm.) high, indigenous in Southern Europe. Description and Properties. - ...
-Oleum Rutae - Olei Rutae - Oil Of Rue
(Non-official.) Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from Ruta graveolens L. Description and Properties. - A colorless or greenish-yellow liquid with the peculiar odor of the plant, and a pungent,...
-Tanacetum - Tanaceti - Tansy
(Non-official.) Origin. - The leaves and tops of Tanacetum vulgare L., a perennial herb indigenous in Europe and Central Asia, and naturalized in many parts of North America. Definition and Prop...
-Petroselinum - Petroselini - Parsley
(Non-official.) Origin. - The root of Petroselinum sativum (Hoffmann), Apium Petroselinum-L., a plant indigenous in Southern Europe, and much cultivated for culinary purposes. Description and Pr...
-Berberis - Berberidis - Barberry. U. S. P
Definition. - The rhizome and roots of Berberis aquifolium and other species of berberis. Berberis aquifolium is known as Oregon grape root. It contains an alkaloid, ber-berine, which is also found...
-Drugs Acting Particularly On The Kidneys. - Diuretics
Diuretics are drugs which increase the flow of urine. Considered in a broader sense, however, these agents augment the secretion and modify the character of the urine: 1. By increasing the amount. ...
-Drugs Acting Particularly On The Kidneys. - Diuretics. Continued
The remedies found to be most efficient in these conditions are diuretin, copaiba, and calomel, although frequently saline purgatives, by ridding the peritoneal cavity of excess of water and preventin...
-Diuretin - Diuretin - Diuretin
(Non-official.) (Sodiosalicylate Of Theobromine.) Origin. - The name indicates the origin, the drug being a chemical combination of theobromine (49.7 per cent.) and salicylic acid (38.1 per cen...
-Piperazinum - Piperazini - Piperazin
(Non-official.) (Plperazidine; Ethyleneimine; Dlethylenediamine; Dlspermine.) Origin. - Obtained by the action of ammonia on bromide or chloride of ethylene, Description and Properties....
-Hexamethylenamina - Hexamethylenaminae -Hexamethylenamine. U. S. P
Definition. - A condensation product of formaldehyde and ammonia, (CH1)6N4. Chemically it is hexamethylene-tetiamine. Also known as aminoform, ammonio-formaldehyde, cystamine, cystogen, formin, uriton...
-Scilla - Scillae - Squill. U. S. P
Origin. - The bulb of Urginea tnaritima (L.) Baker, a plant indigenous in the basin of the Mediterranean, from Syria westward to the coast of the Atlantic. The bulb is deprived of its dry, membranaceo...
-Erythrophleum - Erythrophlei - Erythrophleum
(Non-official.Casca Bark.) Origin. - A glycosid obtained from the bark of Erythrophloeum Guineense Don, known under the names of Casca bark, Sassy bark, and Ordeal bark. The tree is a native of Wes...
-Buchu - Buchu - Buchu. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried leaves of Barosma betulina (Thunberg) Bartling et Wend-land, a shrub attaining a height of several feet, indigenous in the southern portion of Africa, particularly in various parts...
-Ova Ursi - Ovae Orsi - Uva Ursi. U. S. P
(Bearberry.) Origin. - The dried leaves of Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi (L.) Sprengel, a trailing-evergreen plant distributed throughout the northern portion of North America, extending as far south as ...
-Juniperus - Juniperi - Juniper
(Non-official,Juniper Berries.) Origin. - The fruit of Juniperis communis (L.), an evergreen tree indigenous in the northern hemisphere and found in the United States and Canada and in Europe. D...
-Oleum Junlperi - Olei Juniperi - Oil Of Juniper. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from the fruit of Juniperus communis. Description and Properties. - A colorless or faintly greenish-yellow liquid, becoming darker and thicker through age and exp...
-Copaiba - Copaibae - Copaiba. U. S. P
(Balsam of Copaiba.) Definition. - An oleoresin derived from one or more South American species of Copaiba. Description and Properties. - A transparent or translucent, more or less viscid liquid...
-Oleum Copaibae - Olei Copaibae - Oil Of Copaiba. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from copaiba. Description and Properties. - A colorless or pale-yellowish liquid, having the characteristic odor of copaiba and an aromatic, bitterish, and a pung...
-Sabal - Sabal - Sabal. U. S. P
Definition. - The partially dried ripe fruit of Serona serrulata, commonly known as saw palmetto. Very little is known concerning the active principles of saw palmetto. A volatile oil, a fixed oil,...
-Oleum Santali - Olei Santali - Oil Of Santal U. S. P
(Oil of Sandalwood.) Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from the wood of Santalum album L., yielding not less than 90 per cent. of alcohols calculated as santalol. Santalum alburn is a small tree i...
-Cubeba - Cubebae - Cubeb. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried, unripe, but fully grown fruit of Piper Cubeba Linn. fil., a climbing diaecious shrub about 20 feet (6 M.) high, indigenous in Java. Description and Properties. - Globular, abou...
-Oleum Cubebae - Olei Cubebae - Oil Of Cubeb. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil distilled from cubeb. Description and Properties. - A colorless, pale-greenish, or yellowish liquid, having the characteristic odor of cubeb and a warm, camphoraceous, arom...
-Benzosulphinidum - Benzosulphinidi - Benzosulphinide. U. S. P
(Saccharin.) Definition. - An anhydride of orthosulphamide benzoic acid, C6H4S02.CO.NH. It is variously known as glucosimide, saccharol, saccharinol, saccharinose, agucarine, etc. Description an...
-Methylthioninae Hydrochloridum - Methylthionlnae Hydrochloridi - Methylthionine Hydrochloride. U. S. P
(Methylene Blue.) Chemically, it is tetramethylthionine hydrochloride. Properties. - Dark-green, crystalline powder, or prismatic crystals having a bronze-like luster. Readily soluble in water, ...
-Diaphoretics
Diaphoretics - or sudorifics, as they are also called - are medicines which promote diaphoresis or sweating. Their action in stimulating transpiration by the skin may be enhanced by exercise, external...
-Pilocarpus - Pilocarpi - Pilocarpus. U. S. P
(Jaborandi.) Origin. - The leaflets of Pilocarpus Jaborandi Holmes or of Pilocarpus micro-phyllus Stapf., yielding not less than 0.5 per cent. of alkaloids. Description and Properties. - Pilocar...
-Liquor Ammonii Acetatis - Liquoris Ammonii Acetatis - Solution Of Ammonium Acetate. U. S. P
(Spirit of Mindererus.) Origin. - An aqueous solution of ammonium acetate, containing about 7 per cent. of the salt, together with small amounts of acetic and carbonic acids. Description and Pro...
-Spiritus Aethens Nitrosi - Splritus Etheris Nitrosi - Spirit Of Nitrous Ether. U. S. P
(Sweet Spirit of Nitre.) Origin. - An alcoholic solution of ethyl nitrite, yielding, when freshly prepared and tested in a nitrometer, not less than eleven times its own volume of nitrogen dioxide....
-Mineral Astringents
Astringents are medicines which cause the contraction of living tissues, diminishing the amount of blood or other fluid in them, and reducing hemorrhage, or, through their constipating action, limitin...
-Plumbum - Plumbi - Lead
The salts of lead only are used in medicine, the official salts being as follows: Plumbi Acetas - Plumbi Acetatis - Lead Acetate (U. S. P.) (Sugar of Lead). - Origin. - Metallic lead is dissolved i...
-Plumbum - Plumbi - Lead. Continued
The external application of lead solutions and ointments sometimes produces unpleasant effects, such as discoloration of the skin. In the mucous membrane lead rarely excites symptoms of poisoning, a s...
-Zincum - Zinci - Zinc. U. S. P
Origin. - Obtained by roasting the native zinc sulphide or carbonate, and reducing the resulting oxide with charcoal. Description and Properties - A bluish-white metal, showing a crystalline fractu...
-Zincum - Zinci - Zinc. U. S. P. Continued
Untoward Action. - 3-5 grains (0.19-0.32 Gm.) have produced nausea and gastric oppression, while if the zinc salt reaches the intestines diarrhea results. When taken on a full stomach the salts form a...
-Copper. Cupri Sulphas - Cupri Sulphatis - Copper Sulphate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by neating copper and sulphuric acid together, dissolving the soluble product in hot water, and evaporating. Description and Properties. - Large, transparent, deep-blue, triclini...
-Silver. Argenti Cyanidum - Argrenti Cyanidi - Silver Cyanide. U. S. P
Origin. - Obtained by distilling a solution of potassium ferrocyanide acidulated with sulphuric acid, the distillate passing into a receiver containing a solution of silver nitrate. The process should...
-Argrenti Nitras - Argenti Nitratis - Silver Nitrate. U. S. P
Origin. - Obtained by dissolving silver in nitric acid with the aid of heat, evaporating, and crystallizing. Description and Properties. - Colorless, transparent, tabular, rhombic crystals, becomin...
-Argenti Oxidum - Argrenti Oxidi - Silver Oxide. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by shaking a solution of silver nitrate with solution of potassa and washing the precipitate. Description and Properties. - A heavy, dark, brownish-black powder, liable to reduct...
-Newer Preparations Of Silver
Within recent years a number of new compounds of silver have been placed on the market. These have been devised to obviate, in part, the irritating effects of silver nitrate, as well as to avoid the l...
-Aluminium. Alumen - Aluminis - Alum. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by a complicated process from a mixture of aluminum silicate and iron sulphide by roasting, lixiviating with water, concentrating the solution, and, while hot, mixing with potassium...
-Alumini Hydroxidum - Alumini Hydroxidi - Aluminum Hydroxide. U. S. P
Origin. - This substance is found in nature as the rare crystalline mineral gibb-site of North America - the diaspore of Eastern Europe. The aluminum hydrate may be prepared by precipitating the solut...
-Sulphate. U. S. P
Origin. - It is occasionally found as an efflorescence near volcanoes and upon alum-slate. For medicinal use it should be prepared from aluminum hydrioxide, by dissolving it in the requisite quantity ...
-Bismuth. Bismuthi Citras - Bismuthi Citratis - Bismuth Citrate. U. S. P
Origin. - Bismuth subnitrate and citric acid are boiled in sufficient water, and the precipitate washed and dried. It should contain not less than 58 per cent. nor more than 60 per cent. of pure bismu...
-Bismuthi Subcarbonas - Bismuthi Subcarbonatis - Bismuth Subcarbonate. U. S. P
Origin - Obtained by dissolving purified bismuth in nitric acid and water, decanting and filtering, mixing with ammonia water, washing the precipitate, and dissolving in nitric acid. The solution is t...
-Bismuthi Subgrallas - Bismuthi Subgallatis - Bismuth Subgallate. U. S. P
Definition. - Bismuth subgallate should yield not less than 52 per cent. nor more than 57 per cent. of pure bismuth oxide. Official in the German Pharmacopoeia as Bismutum Subgallicum; also known a...
-Bismuthi Subnitras - Bismuthi Subnitratis - Bismuth Subnitrate. U. S. P
Origin. - Prepared by dissolving purified bismuth in nitric acid and water, concentrating by evaporation, adding more water, stirring well, and washing and drying the precipitated bismuth subnitrate. ...
-Bismuthi Subsalicylas - Bismuthi Subsalicylatis - Bismuth Subsalicylate. U. S. P
Definition. - Bismuth subsalicylate should yield not less than 62 per cent. nor more than 64 per cent. of pure bismuth oxide. Official under the names of Bismutum subsalicylicum (P. G.), Bismutum s...
-Unofficial Bismuth Compounds
A large number of bismuth compounds have been proposed for medicinal use in the last few years. The following may be mentioned as examples: Airol (bismuth oxyiodosubgallate), bismal (bismuth methylene...
-Cerium. Cerii Oxalas - Cerii Oxalatis - Cerium Oxalate. U. S. P
(Cerous Oxalate.) Definition. - Cerium oxalate consists chiefly of a mixture of the oxalates of cerium, didymium, and lantharum, and of other rare metals of this group. Origin - Prepared by a co...
-Vegetable Astringents. Acidum Tannicum - Acidi Tannici - Tannic Acid. U. S. P
Definition. - A monobasic organic acid, C13H9O7.COOH, obtained from nutgall. Description and Properties. - A light-yellowish, amorphous powder, usually cohering in the form of glistening scales or ...
-Acidum Gallicum - Acidi Gallici - Gallic Acid. U. S. P
Definition. - An organic acid, C6H1(OH3)COOH + H1O, usually prepared from tannic acid. Description and Properties. - White or pale fawn-colored, silky, interlaced needles or tricolinic prisms; odor...
-Related Compounds
Pyrogallic Acid is of use in acne, but produces a discoloration of the skin. Eugallol and Lenigallol, acetates of pyrogallic acid, have been advised as substitutes of pyrogallic acid in psoriasis a...
-Galla - Gallae - Nutgall. U. S. P
Origin. - An excrescence on Quercus infectoria Olivier, caused by the punctures and deposited ova of Cynips tinctoria Olivier. Quercus infectoria is a small tree, or more often a shrub, 4 to 6 feet...
-Quercus - Quercus - White Oak. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried bark of Quercus alba L., collected from trunks or branches ten to twenty-five years of age, and deprived of the periderm. The oaks are shrubs or trees growing chiefly in the temper...
-Gambir - Gambiris - Gambir. U. S. P
Definition. - An extract prepared from the leaves and twigs of Ourouparia Gambir (Hunter) Bailion. Both drugs contain a large percentage of tannic acid and its compounds. Gambir was introduced on acco...
-Kino - Kino - Kino. U. S. P
Origin. - The inspissated juice of Pterocarpus Marsupium Roxburgh, a tree (called buja in Bengal) 60 to 80 feet (18-24 Mm.) high, indigenous in India and Ceylon. Description and Properties. - Small...
-Krameria - Krameriae - Krameria. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried root of Krameria triandra Ruiz et Pavon, Krameria ixina L., and of Krameria argentea Martine. Low shrubs with spreading branches, native to Bolivia and Peru, growing in sandy local...
-Haematoxylon - Haematoxyli - Haematoxylon. U. S. P
( Logwood. ) Origin. - The heart-wood of Haematoxylon campechianum L., a tree 30 to 40 feet (9-12 M.) high, indigenous on the shores of the Gulf of Campeachy and in certain parts of South America. ...
-Hamamelidis Folia - Hamamelidis Foliorum - Hamamelis Leaves. U. S. P
(Witch-hazel.) Origin. - The dried leaves of Hamamelis Virginiana L., a shrub 6 to 10 feet (1.8-3.0 M.) high, growing in damp woods and thickets in Canada and the United States. Description and ...
-Hamamelidis Cortex - Hamamelidis Corticis - Hamamelis Bark. U. S. P
Both the bark and twig, and the leaves of Hamamelis Virginiana are now recognized by the Pharmacopoeia; the former are introduced under the above title and the old hamamelis (U. S. P., 1890) becomes h...
-Geranium - Geranii - Geranium. U. S. P
(Cranesbill.) Origin. - The dried rhizome of Geranium maculatum L., a perennial herb with a stem 2 to 3 feet (30-60 Cm.) high, very common in Canada and the United States westward as far as Kansas....
-Rhus Glabra - Rhois Glabrae - Rhus Glabra. U. S. P
(Sumach.) Origin. - The dried fruit of Rhus glabra L., a shrub or suffruticose plant about 12 feet (3.6 M.) high, growing in rocky or barren soil in North America. Description and Properties. - ...
-Rosa Gallica - Rosae Gallicae - Red Rose. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried petals of Rosa gallica L., collected before expanding. Description and Properties. - Usually occurring in small cones consisting of numerous imbricated, roundish, retuse, deep p...
-Rubus - Rubi - Blackberry. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried root-bark of the rhizome of Rubus villosus Ait., Rubus nigro-baccus Bailey, or of Rubus cuneifolium Pursh., common shrubby North American plants. Description and Properties. - T...
-Topical Remedies
Rubefacients, Vesicants, and Escharotics. - These consist of a series of remedies that act directly upon the skin or mucous membrane, and are known by different names, according to the amount of irrit...
-Rubefacients
These are drugs which, when locally applied, are intended to produce temporary redness and congestion of the skin. Some of them are vesicant if applied in full strength, and, if their contact with the...
-Mezereum - Mezerei - Mezereum. U. S. P
Definition. - The dried bark of Daphne mezereum L., and of other European species of Daphne. Description and Properties. - Long, thin bands, usually folded or rolled into disks, the outer surface y...
-Xanthoxylum - Xanthoxyli - Xanthoxylum. U. S. P
(Prickly Ash.) Origin. - The dried bark of Xanthoxylum Americanum Miller or of Fagara Clava-Herculis (L.) Small. Both species are native to North America, the first being shrubby and attaining a he...
-Vesicants And Epispastics
These are drugs which excite more or less local irritation when applied to the skin; the inflammatory condition is accompanied by an effusion of serum between the epidermis and dermis - i. e., a blist...
-Cantharis - Cantharidis - Cantharides. U. S. P
(Spanish Flies.) Origin. - Cantharis vesicatoria De Geer, a beetle indigenous to Southern and Central Europe, and found eastward as far as Western Asia. It should be thoroughly dried at a temperatu...
-Sinapis Alba - Sinapis Albae - White Mustard. U.S.P
Origin. - The seed of Sinapis alba L. Dose. - 120 grains (8 Gm.), U. S. P. ...
-Sinapis Nigra -Sinapis Nigrae - Black Mustard. U.S.P
Origin. - The seed of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Both the white and black mustard are annual plants, indigenous in Southern Europe and Western Asia, cultivated, and sometimes found wild in the Unite...
-Oleum Sinapis Volatile - Olei Sinapis Volatilis - Volatile Oil Of Mustard. U. S. P
Origin. - A volatile oil obtained from black mustard by maceration with water and subsequent distillation, yielding not less than 92 per cent. of allyl isothiocyanate. Description and Properties. -...
-Allied Products
Thiosinamine, a product from the volatile oil of mustard, is a useful drug for keloid and scar tissue. It is used in 10-20 per cent. strength as an injection or local application. ...
-Oleum Terebinthinae - Olei Terebinthinae - Oil Of Turpentine. U. S.P
Origin. - A volatile oil recently distilled from turpentine - a concrete oleoresin obtained from Pinus palustris Miller and other species of Pinus. Description and Properties. - A thin, colorless l...
-Rhus Toxicodendron - Rhois Toxicodendri - Rhus Toxicodendri
(Non-official.) (Poison Ivy.) Origin. - The fresh leaves of Rhus radicans'L., a climbing shrub indigenous in Canada and the greater part of the United States westward to the Rocky Mountains. Des...
-Caustics Or Escharotics
Caustics are medicines which destroy the tissues to which they are applied. They excite inflammation and vascular dilatation of the surrounding area. The eschar produced by these drugs is separated fr...
-Chromii Trioxidum - Chromii Trioxidi - Chromic Trioxide. U.S.P
(Chromic Anhydride; Chromic Acid. U. S. P.) Origin - Dissolve potassium bichromate in sulphuric acid and water; decant; heat with more sulphuric acid; cool, and crystallize. Description and Prop...
-Potassii Hydroxidum - Potassii Hydroxidi - Potassium Hydroxide. U. S. P
(Potassium Hydroxide; Caustic Potash; Potassa. U. S. P., 1890.) Origin. - Prepared by evaporating liquor potassae, fusing the residue, and pouring into clean cylindrical molds which have been previ...
-Sodii Hydroxidum - Sodii Hydroxidi - Sodium Hydroxide. U.S.P
(Caustic Soda; Soda. U. S. P., 1890.) Origin. - Prepared from a solution of soda in the same manner as described under Potassii Hydroxidum. Description and Properties. - Dry, white, translucent ...
-Acidum Aceticum Glaciale - Acidi Acetici Glacialis - Glacial Acetic Acid. U.S.P
Origin. - Prepared by distilling dry sodium acetate with strong sulphuric acid. Description and Properties. - A clear, colorless liquid, of a strong, vinegar-like odor, and a very pungent, purely a...
-Acidum Trichloraceticum - Acidi Trichloracetici - Trichloracetic Acid. U.S.P
Definition. - A monobasic organic acid, CCl3.COOH, usually obtained by the oxidation of hydrated chloral with nitric acid. Description and Properties. - White, deliquescent, rhombohedral crystals, ...
-Calx - Calcis - Lime. U. S. P
Origin. - Obtained by burning white marble, oyster shells, or the purest varieties of natural calcium carbonate. Description and Properties. - Hard, white or grayish-white masses, which, in contact...
-Zinci Chloridum - Zinci Chloridi - Zinc Chloride. U.S.P
Origin. - Prepared by dissolving zinc in boiling hydrochloric acid. To the solution is added first nitric acid, then zinc carbonate to precipitate the impurities. Filter and finally evaporate. Desc...
-Bromum - Bromi - Bromine. U.S.P
Origin. - It is found both in seawater and in saline springs, but is chiefly obtained from the mother-liquors of salt-works in the United States and at Strassfurth, Germany. Description and Propert...
-Emollients, Demulcents, And Protective Agents
Emollients are substances which soften, relax, and protect the tissues to which they are applied. They relieve pain and tension by diminishing heat and lessening the pressure on the nerves. Emollie...
-Glycerinum - Glycerini - Glycerin. U.S.P
Origin. - A liquid obtained by the decomposition of vegetable or animal fats or fixed oils, and containing not less than 95 per cent. of absolute glycerin. Description and Properties. - A clear, co...
-Glycerin Suppository
Administration. - Whether glycerin be used externally or internally, it should always be chemically pure, otherwise much irritation may be produced. For external use it may be used pure or mixed wi...
-Adeps Lanae - Adipis Lanae - Wool-Fat. U. S. P
Definition. - The purified fat of the wool of sheep, freed from water. The hydrous wool-fat, which contains not more than 30 per cent. of water, is still retained in the Pharmacopoeia; if this be he...
-Petrolatum Album - Petrolati Albi - White Petrolatum. U.S.P
A white, unctuous mass of about the consistency of an ointment. It is purified petrolatum and is used in the preparation of the ointment of boric acid, the ointment of phenol (Unguentum Acidi Carbol...
-Oleum Olivae - Olei Olivae - Olive Oil. U.S.P
Origin. - The fixed oil expressed from the fruit of Olea europcea L., a shrubby, thorny, medium-sized tree, indigenous in Western Asia, but cultivated in the countries bordering on the Mediterranean a...
-Oleum Amygdalae Expressum - Olei Amygdalae Expressi - Expressed Oil Of Almond. U.S. P
Origin. - A fixed oil expressed from bitter or sweet almond (Prunus Amygdalus, var. amara and dulcis, De Candolle), a tree 15 to 20 feet (5 to 6 M.) high, indigenous in Western Asia and cultivated in ...
-Oleum Lini - Olei Lini - Linseed Oil. U. S. P
(Oil of Flaxseed.) Origin. - A fixed oil expressed without heat from the seed of Linum Usitatissi-tnum L. Description and Properties. - A yellowish or yellow oily liquid, having a slight, peculi...
-Acacia - Acaciae - Acacia. U. S. P
(Gum Arabic.) Origin. - A gummy exudation from Acacia Senegal Willdenow, and other species of acacia, small trees, about 20 feet (6 M.) high, found in India and Africa, especially in the district o...
-Ulmus - Ulmi - Elm. U.S.P
(Slippery Elm.) Origin. - The inner bark of Ulmus fulva Michaux, a medium-sized tree, from 30 to 60 feet (9-18 M.) high, found in the United States and Canada. Description and Properties. - In f...
-Althaea - Althaeae - Althaea. U.S.P
(Marshmallow.) Origin. - The dried root of Althaea officinalis L., a perennial herb indigenous in the temperate portion of Northern and Western Asia and in the greater part of Europe. Descriptio...
-Tragacantha - Tragacanthae - Tragacanth. U.S.P
Origin. - A gummy exudation from Astragalus gummifer Labillardiere, or from other species of Astragalus, low shrubs, indigenous in a portion of the territory lying between Eastern Persia and Greece. ...
-Sassafras Medulla - Sassafras Medullae - Sassafras Pith. U. S. P
Origin. - The dried pith of Sassafras variifolium (Salisbury) O. Kuntze, a tree indigenous in North America. Description and Properties. - In slender, cylindrical pieces, often curved or coiled, li...
-Chondrus - Chondri - Chondrus
(Irish Moss.) Definition. - The dried plant of Chondrus crispus (L.) Lyngbe. One part of chondrus boiled with 30 parts of water yields a solution which gelatinizes on cooling. Dose. - As a demul...
-Kaolinum - Kaolini - Kaolin. U.S.P
Definition. - A native aluminum silicate, consisting largely of the pure silicate, H1Al2Si2O8 + H10. It is a very pure clay. Properties. - Soft, white or yellowish-white powder, odorless, and havin...
-Talcum - Talci - Talc. U.S.P
Definition. - A native hydrous magnesium silicate, official under the same name in the German Pharmacopoeia. Many of the commercial talcum powders contain talc and boracic acid. Properties. - Ta...
-Talcum Purificatum - Talci Purificati - Purified Talc. U.S.P
Talcum purified by treatment with hydrochloric acid. Used in the pharmacopoeial method of preparing certain official waters of volatile oils. The same preparation is to be found in the National For...
-Ceratum Resinae Compositum - Cerati Resinae Composita - Compound Rosin Cerate. U.S.P
Composed of rosin, yellow wax, suet, turpentine, and linseed oil. ...
-Emplastrum Adhaesivum - Emplastri Adhaesivi - Adhesive Plaster. U.S.P
This is to take the place of Emplastrum Resinae (U. S. P., 1890), from which it differs chiefly in the substitution of rubber for rosin. For formula and method of preparation see the Pharmacopoeia....
-Paraffinum - Paraffini - Paraffin. U.S.P
Definition. - A mixture of solid hydrocarbons, chiefly of the methane series. The paraffin of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia melts between 51. 6 and 57.2 C. (I24.9-I35 F.). The hard paraffin (paraffinum dur...
-Gelatinum - Gelatini - Gelatin. U.S.P
The U. S. Pharmacopoeia demands that upon ignition it leaves not more than 2 per cent. of ash. Most of the gelatin on the market has an acid reaction. ...
-Lycopodium - Lycopodii - Lycopodium. U.S.P
Origin. - The spores of Lycopodium clavatum L. and of other species of lycopodium, low-creeping perennials found in dry woods, distributed over the greater portion of the globe. Description and Pro...
-Unguentum - Unguenti - Ointment. U.S.P
White wax, 20; benzoinated lard, 80, constitute the base of simple ointment. Another emollient ointment is Unguentum Aquae Rosae. ...
-Animal Extracts
(Organotherapy). The striking fact that various excretions and tissues of the living organism, when administered under certain conditions, possess a peculiar therapeutic value is now well ascertain...
-Glandulae Thyroideae Siccae - Glandularum Thy-Roidarum Siccarum - Desiccated Thyroid Glands. U.S.P
Definition. - The cleaned, dried, and powdered thyroid glands of the sheep, freed from fat. Description and Properties. - A yellowish amorphous powder, having a slight, peculiar odor; partially sol...
-Serum-Therapy
Among the marvels of scientific research which have distinguished our century no achievements are more remarkable, nor of greater moment to the welfare of mankind, than those pertaining to the field o...
-Serum Antidiphthericum - Seri Antidiphtherici - Antidiphtheritic Serum
(Diphtheria Antitoxin.) Definition. - A fluid separated from the coagulated blood of a horse immunized through the inoculation of diphtheric toxin (U. S. P.). The German Pharmacopoeia recognizes al...
-Serum Antidiphthericum. Seri Antidiphtherici. Antidiphtheritic Serum. Continued
The therapeutic interest of the subject centers in the application of inoculation to man. The early experiments of Foa and Scabia were without result, neither reaction nor amelioration attending their...
-Opsonins, Opsonic Index, And Vaccine Therapy
For the last ten or fifteen years especially close attention has been given in medical research to ascertain how it is that the body itself resists disease and throws it off. Why is it that certain an...
-Opsonins, Opsonic Index, And Vaccine Therapy. Continued
Further, it was found by numerous estimations of the strength of opsonins in the sera of individuals suffering from the various infections that, as a rule, the patient getting worse or no better showe...
-Prescriptions
A prescription (L. prae, for; scriba, I write) is an order on the pharmacist to furnish the patient a single remedy or a combination of remedies made into the form desired by the physician. All prescr...
-Combination Of Drugs
In writing a prescription we assume that it is intended, as should always be the case, to fulfil a single therapeutic purpose only; and we are to decide first, whether the medicine shall be administer...
-Incompatibility
When different substances, whether liquid or solid, are combined or associated and undergo a more or less complete change, they are said to be incompatible, the incompatibility consisting of two kinds...
-Antagonism
Antagonists are drugs which are opposed to each other in their physiological effects. Antagonism was formerly known as therapeutic incompatibility, but, as this latter term has led to confusion, ...
-Estimation Of Amounts
Having decided upon the various ingredients which are to enter into the prescription, the next consideration is the desirable amount of each. The bottles found in pharmacies have capacities of 1,2,...
-Language And Grammatical Construction Of Prescriptions
A prescription is written partly in Latin, partly in English. The name of the patient and the date should be in English; the superscription in Latin abbreviation; the ingredients in Latin; the directi...
-Verbs
The imperative singular is employed in the superscription R - i. e., recipe, take (thou), and in certain directions to the pharmacist, as misce, mix; divide, divide; fac, make; solve, dissol...
-Nouns
Latin nouns are declined according to five different plans, and these are known as the five declensions. Four cases are used in prescription-writing: nominative, genitive, accusative, and ablative. ...
-Adjectives
These are many and must agree in gender, number, and case with the nouns which they qualify. They are declined like nouns of different declensions, having the same cases and numbers, and may be divide...
-Conjunctions - Adverbs
Conjunctions are rare, except St, and. Adverbs are very seldom employed, except bene, well. ...
-Prepositions
Three prepositions govern the accusative case: ad, to, up to; in, into; and supra, upon. Others are rarely used. Two prepositions, oftenest used, govern the ablative case: cum, with, and pro, for. ...
-Much-Used Words And Phrases And Their Common Abbreviations
Ad libitum (ad lib), at pleasure. Ad saturdndum (ad sat.), to saturation. Ana (da), of each. Bene, well, Bis, twice. Bis in die (b. i. d), twice a day. Cibus, food. Cochleare medium (cochl, m...
-Much-Used Words And Phrases, Their Common Abbreviations. Continued
With regard to form, it has been our object to show that there is really little difficulty in writing good prescription Latin, and where the slightest chance of error exists the ample expression, as w...
-Saunders' Books On Gynecology And Obstetrics
W. B. Saunders Company Henrietta Street Covent Garden, London. Saunders' Text-Books Continue To Gain The list of text-books recommended in the various colleges again shows a decided gain for the...
-Ashton's Practice Of Gynecology
The Practice of Gynecology. By W. Easterly Ashton, M. D., LL.D., Professor of Gynecology in the Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadelphia. Handsome octavo volume of 1096 pages, containing 1057 original...
-Bandler's Medical Gynecology
Medical Gynecology. By S. Wyllis Bandler, M. D., Adjunct Professor of Diseases of Women, New York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital. Octavo of 680 pages, with 135 original illustrations. Cloth...
-Gynecology And Abdominal Surgery
Gynecology and Abdominal Surgery. Edited by Howard A. Kelly, M. D., Professor of Gynecology in Johns Hopkins University; and Charles P. Noble, M. D., Clinical Professor of Gynecology in the Woman's Me...
-Webster's Text-Book Of Obstetrics
A Text-Book of Obstetrics. By J. Clarence Webster, M.|D. (Edin.), F. R. C. P. E., Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Rush Medical College, in Affiliation with the University of Chicago; Obstetr...
-Webster's Diseases Of Women With Beautiful Illustrations
A Text-Book of Gynecology. By J. Clarence Webster, M. D. (Edin.), F. R. C. P. E., Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Rush Medical College, in Affiliation with the University of Chicago; Obstetr...
-Cullen's Adenomyoma Of The Uterus
Adenomyoma of the Uterus. By Thomas S. Cullen, M. D., Associate Professor of Gynecology, Johns Hopkins University. Octavo of 275 pages, with original illustrations by Hermann Becker and August Horn. C...
-The American Text-Book Of Obstetrics
Recently Issued - New (2d) Edition The American Text-Book of Obstetrics. In two volumes. Edited by Richard C. Norris, M. D.; Art Editor, Robert L. Dickinson, M. D. Two octavos of about 600 pages ea...
-Hirst's Text-Book Of Obstetrics
New(5th)Edition, Revised A Text-Book of Obstetrics. By Barton Cooke Hirst, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics in the University of Pennsylvania. Handsome octavo, 915 pages, with 767 illustrations, 40 o...
-Hirst's Diseases Of Women
A Text-Book of Diseases of Women. By Barton Cooke Hirst, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics, University of Pennsylvania; Gynecologist to the Howard, the Orthopedic, and the Philadelphia Hospitals. Octavo ...
-Personal Opinions
Howard A. Kelly, M. D., Professor of Gynecology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Dr. Dorland's dictionary is admirable. It is so well gotten up and of such convenient siae. No errors have bee...
-Penrose's Diseases Of Women
Sixth Revised Edition A Text-Book of Diseases of Women. By Charles B. Penrose, M. D., Ph. D., formerly Professor of Gynecology in the University of Pennsylvania; Surgeon to the Gynecean Hospital, P...
-Personal And Press Opinions
Howard A. Kelly, M. D., Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. I shall value very highly the copy of Penrose's ' Diseases of Women ' received. I have alre...
-Dorland's Modern Obstetrics
Modern Obstetrics: General and Operative. By W. A. Newman Dorland, A. M., M. D., Assistant Instructor in Obstetrics, University of Pennsylvania; Associate in Gynecology in the Philadelphia Polyclinic....
-Davis' Obstetric And Gynecologic Nursing
Obstetric and Gynecologic Nursing. By Edward P. Davis, A. M., M. D., Professor of Obstetrics in the Jefferson Medical College and Philadelphia Polyclinic; Obstetrician and Gynecologist, Philadelphia H...
-Garrigues' Diseases Of Women Third Edition, Thoroughly Revised
A Text-Book of Diseases of Women. By Henry J. Garrigues, A. M., M. D., Gynecologist to St. Mark's Hospital and to the German Dispensary, New York City. Handsome octavo, 756 pages, with 367 engravings ...
-American Text-Book Of Gynecology
American Text-Book of Gynecology: Medical and Surgical. Edited by J. M. Baldy, M. D., Professor of Gynecology, Philadelphia Polyclinic. Imperial octavo of 718 pages, with 341 text-illustrations and 38...
-Schaffer And Edgar's Labor And Operative Obstetrics
Atlas and Epitome of Labor and Operative Obstetrics. By Dr. 0. Schaffer, of Heidelberg. Edited, with additions, by J. Clifton Edgar, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Clinical Midwifery, Cornell Univ...
-Schaffer And Edgar's Obstetric Diagnosis And Treatment
Atlas and Epitome of Obstetric Diagnosis and Treatment. By Dr. O. Schaffer, of Heidelberg. Edited, with additions, by J. Clifton Edgar, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Clinical Midwifery, Cornell U...
-Schaffer And Norris' Gynecology
Atlas and Epitome of Gynecology. By Dr. O. Schaffer, of Heidelberg. Edited, with additions, by Richard C. Norris, A. M., M. D., Gynecologist to Methodist Episcopal and Philadelphia Hospitals. With 207...
-Galbraith's Four Epochs Of Woman's Life
Recently Issued - New (2d) Edition The Four Epochs of Woman's Life: A Study in Hygiene. By Anna M. Galbraith, M. D., Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, etc. With an Introductory Note by Jo...
-Schaffer And Webster's Operative Gynecology
Atlas and Epitome of Operative Gynecology. By Dr. 0. Schaffer, of Heidelberg. Edited, with additions, by J. Clarence Webster, M.D. (Edin.), F.R.C.P.E., Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Rush M...
-De Lee's Obstetrics For Nurses
Obstetrics for Nurses. By Joseph B. De Lee, M.D., Professor of Obstetrics in the Northwestern University Medical School; Lecturer in the Nurses' Training Schools of Mercy, Wesley, Provident, Cook Coun...
-American Pocket Dictionary Fifth Revised Edition
Recently issued The American Pocket Medical Dictionary. Edited by W, A. Newman Dorland, A. M., M. D., Assistant Obstetrician to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania; Fellow of the America...
-Cragin's Gynecology. New (6th) Edition
Essentials of Gynecology. By Edwin B. Cragin, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. Crown octavo, 215 pages, 62 illustrations. Cloth, $1.00 net. In Saunders' Qu...
-Boisliniere's Obstetric Accidents, Emergencies, And Operations
Obstetric Accidents, Emergencies, and Operations. By the late L. Ch. Boisliniere, M. D., Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics, St. Louis Medical College; Consulting Physician, St. Louis Female Hospital. 3...
-Ashton's Obstetrics. Recently Issued - New (6th) Edition
Essentials of Obstetrics. By W. Easterly Ashton, M.D., Professor of Gynecology in the Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadelphia. Crown octavo, 256 pages, 75 illustrations. Cloth, $1.00 net. In Saunders...
-Barton And Wells' Medical Thesaurus
A Thesaurus of Medical Words and Phrases. By Wilfred M. Barton, M. D., Assistant to Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Georgetown University, Washington, D. C.; and Walter A. Wells, M. D., ...







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